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Famous Scientist Research Project

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Megan

on 16 September 2013

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Transcript of Famous Scientist Research Project

Famous Scientist Research Project
The Basics of Aristotle's Life
What Aristotle is most famous for
While Aristotle studied all he could, in a time where there were so many discoveries to be made, I believe that Aristotle is famous for his philosophy and understanding of the Four Causes. The Four Causes can be related to the function of the scientific method.
How Aristotle's Accomplishments Benefited the World
How Society Accepted Aristotle's Discoveries
Aristotle's Struggles Pertaining to his Work
Aristotle
384 B.C. - 322 B.C.
Early Life
The Four Causes
Fields of study: logic, physics, natural science, metaphysics, politics, rhetoric, ethics, philosophy, zoology, etc.
The Material Cause:
The Formal Cause:
The Efficient Cause:
The Final Cause:
The material cause is "that from which, as a constituent, an object comes into being." It can be described as, quite simply, the materials. "Out of what thing has a thing come?"

Example: To bake a cake, you would use eggs, milk, water, flour, sugar, etc.
The Formal Cause is basically your "blueprint." It is what your topic essentially is.
The efficient cause is said to be "the source of the change or rest." It is "what makes of what is made and what changes of what is changed" and basically the moving cause. The cause is a lot like "what makes what." This is very much like the work used to actually make the coffee. "By means of what is it?"

Example: In the process of getting your house painted, you must actually paint.
It is said that the final cause is "that for the sake of which a thing is done." This is very much so the final results.
Example: If a sculptor were to make a statue from a marble block, the finished statue would be the final cause.
Schools
His Role in the Macedonian Royal Court
At about 17, Aristotle was sent out to get the best education he could by his "brother-in-law," Proxenus of Atarneus.
He was sent to the Athens to study with Plato.
Plato's school was one of the best there was out there at the time.
Aristotle, having attended at age 17, remained a relationship with the school and Plato for two decades.
Aristotle wasn't agreeing with him as often as he would have liked to. They often debated and had some squabble.
When Plato had passed away, Aristotle received nothing.
After tutoring Alexander the Great, Aristotle opened his own school, Lyceum, in Athens.
There he taught his own teachings and was even one of the first to teach in an organized systematic manner.
His Death
Bibliography
Aristotle had a great relationship with the Macedonian court due thanks to his father
After hearing about Aristotle's schooling, Aristotle was offered the chance to tutor young Alexander the Great.
Aristotle gladly accepted and began tutoring the thirteen year old boy.
Later on, Alexander the Great had been able to conquer and invade multiple lands.
Shields, Christopher. N.p.. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/aristotle/>.
Waggone , B.. N.p.. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristotle.html>.
Ross, W. D.. N.p.. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Aristotle.html>.
. N.p.. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://www.marshallfarrier.com/aristotle/work_method.htm>.
. N.p.. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://greece.mrdonn.org/aristotle.html>.
Kenny, A. K.. N.p.. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://www.biography.com/people/aristotle-9188415?page=1>.
Kenny, Anthony. N.p.. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://www.history.com/topics/aristotle>.
S. Marc, C.. N.p.. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://faculty.washington.edu/smcohen/320/4causes.htm>.
Zunjic, Bob. N.p.. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://www.willamette.edu/~sbasu/poli212/AristotleonCause.htm>.
O'Flaherty, S.. N.p.. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://philosophy.sean.tripod.com/id17.htm>.
. N.p.. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://classweb.gmu.edu/rcherubi/ancient/scl6.htm>.
Gill, N. S.. N.p.. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/people/p/aristotle.htm>.
Marvin, C.. N.p.. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://www.trincoll.edu/depts/phil/philo/phils/aristotle.html>.
. N.p.. Web. 11 Sep 2013. <http://oregonstate.edu/instruct/phl201/modules/Philosophers/Aristotle/aristotle.html>.

He was born in...
Aristotle was born in Stagira, Greece (or ancient Macedonia).
Family
Father (Nicomachus)-a royal physician to the Macedonian royal family, but mainly to King Amyntas II.

Mother (Phaestis)- Not much is known about his mother.

Both parents, sadly, died when Aristotle was young.
From there he was sent to live with his sister and her husband, Proxenus of Atarneus.
http://www.p-synd.com/dear04sm.png
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=89VAlrfTlBuRiM&tbnid=6vjX3Yfo9pJNXM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.mlahanas.de%2FGreece%2FCities%2FStagira.html&ei=Mt0vUsmND-SEjALmuoDgAw&bvm=bv.52109249,d.cGE&psig=AFQjCNGJdRWi66vY81898gKetl1jY6n93A&ust=1378954925758394
What are the Four Causes?
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=c77wUZVS0dTGaM&tbnid=urjFN5Jir-hDBM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fequivalentexchange.wordpress.com%2F2010%2F08%2F12%2Faristotles-four-causes%2F&ei=B98vUojXJIPiiwKb8IH4Cw&bvm=bv.52109249,d.cGE&psig=AFQjCNHwE4tZt6eHKI3rK2aBBgimaenISA&ust=1378955359391907
What is Aristotle famous for?
How it helps modern times
Anything else?
Quick Fun Fact!
*FUN FACT- Aristotle used to roam about the grounds of his school very frequently, even when teaching! So technically, his students had to "follow" him around.*
For quite a while, Aristotle was (and might still be) argued to be the smartest man on Earth
He studied every aspect of science that he could.
Aristotle shared his teachings through his books.
Aristotle is also very famous for his philosophical and ethical teachings.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=hgIQHkbCdt-nAM&tbnid=z-DUn9SNNVb7pM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fextension.usu.edu%2Fwaterquality%2Fhtm%2Fscience-fair-project-ideas&ei=LtswUpiQPKWdigKV7oHQDQ&bvm=bv.52109249,d.cGE&psig=AFQjCNE7vxC1Fyl5wOZcEiiYS7JQQZie7Q&ust=1379019939864448
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The four main causes can be transferred to the modern day scientific method.
Similarities: Material Cause/Materials, Formal Cause/Procedure, Efficient Cause/Question (OR research), Final Cause/Results (OR Conclusion OR Date)
How it used to be
In the times which Aristotle was present in, plus earlier/later, people didn't like change

They also didn't like anything that could possibly be considered to "disregard" their gods

When the people spent their life believing something, it is hard to let go of that belief.

Aristotle was ridiculed for a lot of his work.

Since there weren't that many discoveries, quite a few people were all working to discover something, creating many different answers and competition for Aristotle.
The Impacts of Being "New"
Since Aristotle was of a time where many new discoveries were being made, but barely enough to truly understand life, he struggled with his information.

Nowadays, we have previous research to base our own research of of

Back then, they didn't get that luxury.

Even though there were past discoveries, Aristotle wasn't able to use it all, based on the unreliable source of it. If they needed to find something, they did it theirself.
The Struggle Summary
Because of the fact that it was so long ago, it is difficult to tell absolutely everything. It is like playing the game "Telephone," the story gets passed down so much that it ends up twisted in one way or another but with truth in it.

Aristotle was also ridiculed by scientists

Not everything he claimed were true (i.e. the laws of motion)
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=g1lymhx_LDrAhM&tbnid=zJyl6ivbRckGZM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fphilosophicalquest.org%2F&ei=nTUxUqzwKMWkiQKlo4D4Bg&bvm=bv.52109249,d.cGE&psig=AFQjCNHl0UxFdxcRDzYkhyrW4tt2mCjMeA&ust=1379043095417329
Aristotle was the first to understand and share the Four Causes. The four causes essentially are:
The Material Cause
The Formal Cause
The Efficient Cause
The Final Cause
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=wKvgIU194YeNcM&tbnid=QyNm_vPMsaBmsM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Firaknol.wordpress.com%2Farticle%2Faristotle-s-physics-the-four-causes-3ncxde0rz8dtk-8%2F&ei=JDgxUr_gOaS7igKbrYB4&bvm=bv.52109249,d.cGE&psig=AFQjCNEGKqxD7o3dp3r-EmJAFYSigg5dVA&ust=1379043735977541
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=ao6UgK_JHLBMdM&tbnid=0tCD1dZBQbnH_M:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.sciencebuddies.org%2Fscience-fair-projects%2Fproject_scientific_method.shtml&ei=gzgxUtKIKOrhiwKAkYFw&bvm=bv.52109249,d.cGE&psig=AFQjCNHnxCW-xyIXDu8wA4QXYGJJqhy5Mg&ust=1379043685350975
Aristotle was the first to use a systematic way of teaching, which was "foreign" to the schools at the time.
We now use this in every way we can.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=23aswoLnjIV41M&tbnid=ezTGSy5i5ux08M:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fsurvivalsupplies4u.com%2Fgrab-and-go-list-for-an-emergency-evacuatio%2F&ei=rjkxUtORK8eXiQL354DgDA&bvm=bv.52109249,d.cGE&psig=AFQjCNH-luqvnAPP4qZX_sOzuWAlm621-A&ust=1379044138160344
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=wuxIWszD6g6teM&tbnid=883v0tgwZFWheM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fblog.mrm.org%2F2011%2F05%2Fmormon-trifle%2F&ei=EjoxUub6HsGUiAKIpYDIAw&bvm=bv.52109249,d.cGE&psig=AFQjCNH-luqvnAPP4qZX_sOzuWAlm621-A&ust=1379044138160344
The Times
Back then, there wasn't a lot of information so people didn't know what was going on.
A lot of the time, religion got in the way.
Some people just didn't want to change their minds and be said to be wrong
Philosiphors had been executed for "extremist" views
Some people wanted to learn so they followed Aristotle.
This was easy because they could just enroll in his school in Athens.
Aristotle developed an easy way of teaching by doing it in an order called Systematic Listing.
Systematic listing was an easy way to learn prior to previous teachers.
http://www.google.com/imgres?sa=X&biw=1366&bih=705&tbm=isch&tbnid=98MyOrrvF7ZpoM:&imgrefurl=http://www.solidproofs.com/2013/03/science-vs-religion.html&docid=Efc_XQKaeidXFM&imgurl=http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-v1Lf1rHrRwM/UVftWqzY1gI/AAAAAAAAAww/JZocnYZSJkU/s320/Science-vs-religion.jpeg&w=320&h=320&ei=_DwxUuP_IajeigK8yYHwDA&zoom=1&ved=1t:3588,r:0,s:0,i:81&iact=rc&page=1&tbnh=196&tbnw=171&start=0&ndsp=17&tx=112&ty=49
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http://www.google.com/url?sa=i&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=TJE-otAwZHnHeM&tbnid=tlzkVNuTVqfePM:&ved=0CAgQjRwwAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.123rf.com%2Fphoto_11460417_clueless-man.html&ei=Gz4xUuyLG-zpigK_Ag&psig=AFQjCNFbFrtWZKuU5g8CH_Dq7GC4BkCJ5g&ust=1379045275494439
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=_7d0E_MzE3dq4M&tbnid=nc4pbXAHafisXM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.barnesandnoble.com%2Fw%2Fexecuted-philosophers-books-llc%2F1101275266%3Fean%3D9781155444185&ei=yj4xUpzFJafriQLt3IDgBg&psig=AFQjCNEi-q46bR4hgdC-5lNtRAiAnprU7A&ust=1379045430915896
Yay or Nay?
Many did not want to change what they knew
Others wanted change
Aristotle soon grew love/hate relationships through education
Skepticism, fear of change, religion, and more got in the way.
http://www.google.com/imgres?sa=X&biw=1366&bih=705&tbm=isch&tbnid=EPlBX3pc34n1cM:&imgrefurl=http://therealbrianlee.blogspot.com/2012/06/lovehate-relationship.html&docid=h0n9wTSd_ASzEM&imgurl=http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-ys4qwAh2-9c/T-f19bpITbI/AAAAAAAAAVs/vKTCcmBngBU/s1600/LoveHate.jpg&w=550&h=338&ei=PT8xUrHDDoH-iwKS2oHgDg&zoom=1&ved=1t:3588,r:0,s:0,i:90&iact=rc&page=1&tbnh=162&tbnw=264&start=0&ndsp=11&tx=144&ty=73
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https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=AdF3g_PykycXhM&tbnid=Zb-6XwSeZsK8vM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fextrovertdiary.blogspot.com%2F2013%2F02%2Fthe-voice_24.html&ei=XEExUoWyDaSYiQKT5oCwAg&psig=AFQjCNG1HR3v8KajbamS9al5XROd41bFqA&ust=1379046068228412
Many years later, Aristotle was charged with impiety-"lack of piety or reverence, esp. for a god." From there, he fled to an island, Chalcis, to avoid those charges. Later, he began developing a disease of digestive organs and died in 322 B.C.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=fJ5WooF4UhT4UM&tbnid=qubo_VtwA3wbFM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.xtimeline.com%2Fevt%2Fview.aspx%3Fid%3D816537&ei=RkUxUoX-AdDwiQKnj4HIDg&bvm=bv.52109249,d.cGE&psig=AFQjCNH_G6E3PVUYDBcjBXPSPtbMd8eVHw&ust=1379047103684319
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His Work
Aristotle did a lot of his work on the go. He went wherever he could to study and work. When he wasn't on-the-go, Aristotle was studying at his school-Lyceum.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=i&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=images&cd=&cad=rja&docid=S2bKIyOGyC5r7M&tbnid=WF_ROVclfRWiVM:&ved=0CAUQjRw&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.livius.org%2Fap-ark%2Faristoteles%2Faristotle.html&ei=xS4yUujTMqKCiAKdmICgCw&bvm=bv.52164340,d.cGE&psig=AFQjCNGuQgLP5AZV0Wo86lTDaiYM4nElXQ&ust=1379106050918642
By:Megan Ruff
The End
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