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STDs: What You Didn't Learn in Grade School

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Myriah Luke

on 17 April 2014

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Transcript of STDs: What You Didn't Learn in Grade School


by having anal, vaginal, or oral sex with someone that is infected
can get infected again if you’ve had it before
if pregnant it's also possible for a mother to spread chlamydia to her child during delivery, causing pneumonia or a serious eye infection in her newborn

Treatment and Prevention
treated with antibiotics
infection will resolve within one to two weeks, should abstain from sex
having already had the infection doesn’t prevent you from catching it again


Symptoms
painful urination
lower abdominal pain
vaginal discharge in women
discharge from the penis in men
painful sexual intercourse in women
bleeding between periods for women
testicular pain in men

Transmission

The painless syphilis sore that you would get after you are first infected can be confused for an ingrown hair, zipper cut, or other seemingly harmless bump.
The non-itchy body rash that develops during the second stage of syphilis can show up on the palms of your hands and soles of your feet, all over your body, or in just a few places.
You could also be infected with syphilis and have very mild symptoms or none at all.
·

Protection and Treatment

Not having sex
-Being in a long-term mutually monogamous relationship with a partner who has been tested and has negative STD test results
Using latex condoms and dental dams the right way every time you have sex.
Washing your genitals, urinating, or douching after sex will not protect you from getting syphilis
Syphilis can be cured with right antibiotics but the dmage done cannot be reversed.

Basic information
Test and Diagnosis
Pap test: the doctor collects a sample of cells from your cervix or vagina to send for laboratory analysis.
DNA test: recognizes the DNA of high-risk varieties of HPV that have been linked to genital cancers. The test is conducted on a sample of cells taken from your cervix.
Most men and women do not experience any symptoms.
Genital warts can be a sign of HPV.
Genital warts appear as fat lesions, small cauliflower-like bumps or tiny stem-like protrusions.
Cervical Cancer can cause irregular bleeding.
Chlamydia
Syphilis

HPV(human papillomavirus)

STDs
Treatment
Methods commonly used to treat precancerous lesions caused by HPV include chemical or drugs, excisional surgery, cryosurgery, electro surgery, and laser surgery.
Transmission
How it works:
Infected fluids (blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, rectal fluid, vaginal fluid, breast milk) either contact damage tissue, contact mucus membranes, or are ingested.
Leading Risks:
Unprotected sex with someone who has HIV
Sharing needles, syringes, rinse water, or other equipment used to prepare injection drugs with someone who has HIV
Multiple partners
HIV is not spread by:
Air or water
Insects, including mosquitoes or ticks
Saliva, tears, or sweat
Casual contact like shaking hands or sharing dishes
Toilet seats.

Symptoms and Testing
Most people show no symptoms of having the virus. If symptoms are present, they will be flu-like:
Fever, sore throat, rash, enlarged lymph nodes.
Testing is the only way to be certain if you have HIV.
Tests:
Antibody screening test (immunoassay)
Follow-up tests
RNA tests
Home tests: OraQuick and Home HIV Access HIV-1

Treatment
Antiretroviral therapy (ART)
Physician instructions - follow carefully
Strive for general health - avoid infections and opportunistic illnesses
Contact partners
Reevaluate sexual activity

Basics
common STD that can infect both men and women
affects both men and women and occurs in all age groups
- most prevalent among young women


What happens if I DON'T get treated?
Women: untreated chlamydia can spread to your uterus and fallopian tubes causing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). PID often has no symptoms, however some women may have abdominal and pelvic pain.
Even if it doesn’t cause symptoms initially, PID can cause permanent damage to your reproductive system and lead to long-term pelvic pain, inability to get pregnant, and potentially deadly ectopic pregnancy (pregnancy outside the uterus).
Men: rarely have health problems linked to chlamydia. Infection sometimes spreads to the tube that carries sperm from the testicles, causing pain and fever.


Risk Factors

being under the age of 24
multiple sex partners in the past year
not using a condom consistently
history of prior STD

Being Tested
Swab
women: doctor take a swab of the discharge from your cervix for culture or antigen testing for chlamydia
men: doctor inserts a slim swab into the end of your penis to get a sample from the urethra; in some cases, your doctor may swab the anus
Urine test: doctor will get a urine sample from you
Prevention
use condoms
limit your number of sex partners
get regular screenings
avoid douching

Symptoms
HIV
Prevention
Most reliable way to prevent infection is to avoid skin-to-skin oral, anal, or genital contact with another person.
Use of condoms and having only one sex partner.
Two Vaccine used:
Gardasil: used for the prevention of cervical, anal, vulvar, and vaginal cancer as well as precancerous lesions in these tissues and genital warts caused by HPV infection.
Cervarix: for prevention of cervical cancer and precancerous cervical lesions caused by HPV infection.
Historical Information
In the 1980s cervical cancer cells were demonstrated to contain HPV/DNA.
More than 150 related viruses. More than 40 of the viruses can be spread through sexual intercourse.
Who is impacted?
About 20 million people in the U.S. are infected with HPV.
Three fourths of sexually active people between ages of 15 and 49 have been infected at some point in their lives.
CDC found that:
19% of women 50 to 59 were infected with HPV virus.
27% of women 20 to 24 were infected with HPV virus.
45% of women 14 to 19 were infected with HPV virus.

A sexually transmitted infection caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
It is spread by direct contact with a syphilis sore during anal, vaginal, or oral sex.
Sores can be found on the penis, vagina, anus, in the rectum, or on the lips and in the mouth
Syphilis can also be spread from an infected mother to her unborn baby.
Syphilis has been called ‘the great imitator’ because it has so many possible symptoms, many that can imitate other diseases


Figure 40. Primary and Secondary Syphilis—Reported Cases* by Sex, Sexual Behavior, and Race/ Ethnicity, United States, 2012
Gonorrhea
It is caused by a bacteria that can multiply easily in the mucus membranes of the body
Gonorrhea bacteria can grow in the moist, warm areas of the reproductive tract including the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes in women
urethra in both women and men
It can spread by anal, vaginal, or oral sex with someone who has gonorrhea
A pregnant women can give it to her baby if she has it

Causes & How is Spread
Treatment
Discharge
Anal itching
Soreness
Bleeding
Painful bowel movements
Symptoms
Known as the "clap" or "drip" STD
Basics
Occurs with people who have many sex partners with unprotected sex
It is typically seen in the age group of 15-24 year old
It can cause infections in the genitals, rectum, and throat.
Men
May have no symptoms, but if do they can include:
burning sensation when urinating
white, yellow, or green discharge
painful or swollen testicles
Women
Can be mild or mistaken for a bladder infection
Problems that can occur are:
burning sensation when urinating
increased vaginal discharge
vaginal bleeding between periods
Both Men and Women
Easy to treat and can be treated with antibiotics
Both you and partner must be treated for gonorrhea before you begin having sex again
Getting tested again three months after the infection is gone is very important
Pregnant women will have a different antibiotic
Prevention
Not having sex
Use condoms when having sex
Talk to you partner before sex about any previous STD
Have a relationship with you partner and know the person
Avoid having sex with a lot of different partners
Basics
Human Immunodeficiency Virus
HIV attacks T-cells, incapacitating the immune system
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
Came from Chimpanzees. Who knew?

Prevention
Regular testing
Monogamy or safe, protected sex
Avoid blood
Limit injection drug use
New, unused needles/equipment

Causes of HIV Infection in 2010
Sources
http://www.cdc.gov/hiv
http://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/stdfact-gonorrhea.htm
http://www.webmd.com/sexual-conditions/guide/gonorrhea
http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-topics/stds-hiv-safer-sex/gonorrhea-4269.htm
http://www.cdc.gov/std/chlamydia/stdfact-chlamydia.htm
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/chlamydia/basics/definition/con-20020807
http://www.cdc.gov/std/syphilis/stdfact-syphilis.htm

http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/hpv-infection/basics/symptoms/con-20030343
http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpv.htm
http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/HPV
http://www.webmd.com/sexual-conditions/hpv-genital-warts/hpv-virus-information-about-human-papillomavirus

Test Questions
1. Describe a few ways to avoid STDs.
2. Why is it important to be tested for STDs?
3. What are some symptoms that gonorrhea and chlamydia share?
4. How can you prevent contracting HPV?
5. What are some possible effects of late-stage syphilis infection?
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