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Ebola Pandemic?

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Mark Matson

on 16 October 2014

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Transcript of Ebola Pandemic?

Ebola Pandemic?
an overview
Both Ebola and Marburg are single-stranded RNA viruses belonging to the family filoviridae
Species Case Fatality Rate
Zaire 55%-88%
Sudan 50%
Ivory Coast 0%(1 person/chimp)
Bundibugyo 30%
Reston only infects other
First Recognized in 1967
-workers in Germany and Yugoslavia were sectioning primate kidneys and preparing cell cultures for a polio vaccine
318 infected with 280 deaths resulting in an 88% mortality rate
1976 Ebola Zaire(now Democratic Republic of Congo
Filum-Latin for
Current Outbreak Timeline
12-28-13 -a 2 year old dies in Guinea
Funeral customs cause more infections
Date Deaths Location
3-22-14 59 Guinea
3-28-14 2 Liberia
Current Outbreak Timeline
Current Outbreak Timeline
8-8-14 Death toll tops 1000
9-5-14 2100 dead 4000 infected
9-26-14 3091 dead 6574 infected
10-15-14 4493 dead 8997 infected
Completely separate from West African outbreak
-Index case: a pregnant woman in the Democratic Republic of Congo prepared some bushmeat
-70 cases resulting in 42 deaths
BTW: There is another outbreak!
Where is it Coming From?
From 2002-2004 an estimated 5000 gorillas died-ebola suspected
Virus is spreading at a rate of 50km per year across equatorial Africa
Bats are the suspected long term host
Direct contact of broken skin or unprotected mucous membrane with virus containing body fluids from a person that has developed signs and symptoms of the disease
Most Likely: Blood, feces, and vomit.
Has been detected in: Urine, semen, and breast milk
Suspected in: Saliva and tears
Uncertain: Sweat
Reason for Concern?
Some studies have indicated that the virus can last for SEVERAL days on a surface
Is it Airborn?
It has been transmitted via the respiratory route when medical procedures produce aerosols
What Cells are Targeted?
Macrophages, dendritic cells, monocytes, endothelial. epithelial, fibroblasts, hepatocytes and adrenal cortical cells
What is Hit First?
1. Dendritic cells and macrophages become necrotic and subsequently release large numbers of viruses into the extracellular fluid.
2. New viruses travel to lymph nodes for more viral replication
3. Widespread dissemination to dendritic cells and macrophages in the liver, spleen, thymus and lymphatic system
What Else Does it Do?
-Suppresses Type I interferon responses
-Causes systemic inflammatory syndrome which induces the release of cytokines resulting in vascular leakage
Insult to Injury
The liver is attacked so vigorously that the patient can't receive pain medication
8-10 days is typical
2-21 days is possible
6 days if percutaneous
10 days if cutaneous
Opiods would build up to toxic levels and reduce respiration to the point of death
The Survivors
Can carry the virus for up to 3 months
Ebola in Perspective
-1.2 million AIDS-related deaths in Africa in 2011
-3000 African kids die DAILY from malaria
Should We Be Concerned?
2 separate cases of mothers infecting their children via breast milk even though the virus was undetected in their blood
Full transcript