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Ch. 13 Renaissance and Reformation
Transcript of Ch. 13 Renaissance and Reformation
Why did England form a new church?
How did the Catholic Church reform itself?
Why did some groups face persecution? Topics to think about: Section 4: Reformation Ideas Spread What was the Renaissance?
Why weer the Italian city states a favorable setting for cultural
What themes and techniques did writers and artists of this period explore? Begins in Italy--> spreads North to Europe
Why Italy? Which Artists brought the Renaissance to northern Europe?
What themes did humanist thinkers and other writers explore?
What impact did the printing revolution have on Europe? Topics to focus on: Renaissance in Italy Section 2: The Renaissance Moves North - New interests in Rome and its "remainders"
- Cities survive the Middle Ages
North--> Florence, Millan, and Genoa (trade and manufacturing)
Central--> Rome; South--> Naples--> cultural center
- Wealthy and Powerful merchant class
stress education and achievement
spending lots of $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ Renaissance and Reformation Florence Center of Renaissance
Medici Family- richest merchant and banking family
gain full control of government
patron- financial supporter of the arts What is the Renaissance? Plague ends--> want order--> look back to Greece and Rome
HUMANISM--> focus on worldly subjects not religious; focus on intellect and education; use ancient ideas in their world Individualism; talents; adventure; curiosity
Human experience in the here and now
PETRARCH- early humanist--> collects Greek and Roman manuscripts; write sonnets (love poems) about a woman Renaissance Characteristics Religious figures portrayed in Greek and Roman Styles
columns, arches, and domes
shading and shadows
live models- more accurate human portrayal
PERSPECTIVE- distant objects are smaller to make a 3-D, realistic painting vanishing point TMNT Totally Masterful New Talents Donatello Raphael Leonardo Michelangelo LEONARDO DA VINCI
engineering Donatello c. 1386 – 1466 (early Renaissance) in Florence
Man on horseback, Erasmo (better known as the Gattamelata, or "Honey-Cat") , first since ancient times
Realistic Michelangelo The Annunciation The Last Supper M
Sculptor, engineer, painter, architect, and poet
Fresco- applying paint to fresh plaster on a wall Pieta David Me http:/www.vatican.va/various/cappelle/sistina_vr/index.html Raphael Studied the works of Michelangelo and Leonardo
Portrays tender Jesus and Madonna
"School of Athens"= portrays great greek scholars and masters of Renaissance Plato Aristotle D
o Raphael Italian Writers Castiglione- "The book of the Courtier"
describes how to act as a member of the royal court; describes ideal man and woman Machiavelli- "The Prince"
guide for rulers on how to gain and maintain power
looks at real rulers
the ends justifies the means; do not have to keep promises Topics to Think About: Begins in Flanders (Near North France)
Spain, France, Germany, and England begin Renaissance in 1500's Albrecht Durer "German Leonardo"
Traveled to Italy to learn about art and the different techniques of the masters
Engravings- eatch design into metal platewith acid and makes prints
portrays religious upheaval Flemish Painters Jan and Hubert van Eyck - portray townspeople and
- Developed oil based paint Northern Humanists Pietr Bruegel - Bright colors in
portrayal of peasant
life Peter Paul Rubens - Blends ideas of Bruegel and Italian Renaissance Erasmus (Dutch)
produces New Testament in Greek
wants translation of Bible into vernacular- everyday language of ordinary people
chief duty- be open minded and of good will toward others
"The Praise of Folly- uses humor to show the ignorant and immoral behavior of his day Thomas More wants social reform
Utopia- describes ideal society where men and women live ain peace and harmony; everyone is educated
Utopian- describes an ideal society William Shakespeare 1590- 1613
comedies (A midsummer Night's Dream)
history (Richard III)
tragedies (Romeo and Juliet; Othello; Macbeth)
1,700 new words: bedroom, lonely, generous, gloomy, heartsick Cervantes Spain- early 1600's
Don Quixote- mocks chivalry
knight who pretends to be on an adventure
fights a windmill Printing Revolution - Chinese make books first by 1300- papermaking in Europe
- By 1400's= germans invent movable type
- 1456- Johann Gutenberg prints first Bible using movable type Literacy Revolution More books= cheeper books= more people can read and write!!!
Ideals spread! (people are exposed to new things for the first time) PROTESTANT
REFORMATION! Topics to focus on:
How did the abuses in the church spark widespread criticism?
How did Martin Luther challenge the catholic authority and teachings?
What role did John Calvin play in the Reformation Section 3: The Protestant Reformation Abuses of the Church Pope Competed with Italian Princes for control of City States
waged war to protect papal states
Indulgences= purchased with gifts or
money to the church lessen the time a
soul would have to spend in purgatory.
Many rejected these practices Luther's Protest German monk
1517, started revolt against Catholic church
95 theses: In Wittenburg, posted arguments against indulgences Church wanted him to recant, or give up his views at Diet of Worms. He refused. Luther's Teachings Salvation achieved through faith
Bible is sole source of religious truth
reject special powers of priests
no indulgences, Spread of Lutheran Ideas Widespread Support Seen as answer to churches corruption
Tired of money going to Italy The Peasants' revolt 1524- revolt spread across Germany.
Grew violent, Luther denounced it. Peace of Augsburg 1530-1540= Charles V tried to force Lutheran princes back into Catholic Church
1555= Peace agreement between princes and Pope; princes decide which religion they want.
North= Lutheran; South= Catholic John Calvin Born in France
1536= Institutes of the Christian Religion
predestination= idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation Calvin's Geneva Set up theocracy= government run by church leaders
Strict rules made Protestants look at Geneva as ideal society Spread of Calvinism 1500's= Germany, France, Netherlands, England, and Scotland
Lutherans opposed Calvinism
Huguenots= French Calvinists, fought Catholics
John Knox= Scottish Presbyterian Church 1500's=new calls for reforms shattered Christian unity - New Protestant sects.
rejected infant baptism Anabaptists - abolish private property
- mostly peaceful radical members become violent to bring about judgment day English Reformation already problems between English clergy and RCC (Radical Catholic Church) Henry VIII - wants to end papal control over England
at first, he supports RCC, not Luther
- 1527= wanted annulment from marriage to Catherine of Aragon--> No Son
- Pope Refueses - Henry takes over English Church--> Anglican
- 1534: Act of Supremacy--> Henry is only head of English Church
-Thomas Cranmer appointed archbishop of Canterbury.
annulled wedding and Henry married Anne Boleyn -1536-1540- English convents and monasteries closed
- 1547= Henry dies, 10 year old son, Edward VI takes over
Protestant reforms come to England
- After Edward, Mary Tutor becomes queen
wants Catholicism in England
dies in 1558
- Elizabeth comes to power
tries to reform England
Church of England Catholic ritual and ceremony
bishops and archbishops monarch in charge of church Unifies England! Catholic Reformation
Coucil of Trent (1545)
reaffirms Catholic views
salvation--> faith and good works
penalties for corruption
schools for better educated clergy Pope Paul III (1530-40's) Inquisition
Pope Paul Strengthens it
Index of Forbidden Books
books of Luther and Calvin Ignatius of Loyola
1540- Paul allowed Jesuits
to combat heresy and spread faith
schools Teresa of Avila
entered convent when young; didn't find it strict enough
set up nuns; isolation
prayer and meditation
becomes saint Persecutions Religious INtolerance
agents of the devil
usually women (outcasts)
why? - Belief in magic and spirits= heresy
- scapegoats: someone to blame for problems Jews and the Reformation Early Italian Reniassance= prosperous
- Spain= expelled or killed
restricted to certain jobs
- 1516- Venice: orders Jews to live in ghetto- separate area from society Section 5: The Scientific Revolution Topics to Focus on:
How did astronomers change the way people viewed the universe?
What was the new scientific method?
What advances did Newton and other scientists make? Changing Views of the Universe -Mid 1500's- scholars accepted theory of
Greek astronomer Ptolemy
geocentric- Earth is the center of the universe
agreed with church teachings
-1543- Nicolaus Copernicus taught that
universe was heliocentric, or that the sun
is the center of the universe.
Earth was just one of many planets
-Tycho Brahe= observed night sky to prove
After death, Johannes Kepler proved that planets move in ellipse- oval shape orbit of planets. Galileo Galilei Italian astronomer that developed specially designed telescope.
observed moons of Jupiter moving around planet
attacked for views
Persecuted by Church- heavens were perfect, unmoving, and fixed
1633- asked by Inquisition to withdraw "heresies"
he agreed A New Scientific Method A Step by Step Process Method not based on Bible or ancient philosophers
Started with hypothesis=used reasoning to propose possible explanation
the step by step process was called the scientific method Francis Bacon and Rene Descartes Bacon was English and Descartes was French
Both rejected Aristotle's scientific assumptions
Truth is not known at the beginning of inquiry, but at the end Stressed experiment and observation emphasized human reasoning as the best road to understanding Newton Ties it All Together Issac Newton formed theory of why planets move the way they do
Apple fell from a tree
20 years= force that pulled apple from tree keeps planets in orbit around the sun= gravity
Helped in development of calculus