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Abnormal Psychology

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by

Andrew Cantrell

on 16 December 2013

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Transcript of Abnormal Psychology

What is Abnormal?
Psychological disorder
: a “harmful dysfunction” in which behavior is judged to be atypical, disturbing, maladaptive, and unjustifiable
more important areas of
daily life
History of Mental Illness
Causes of Mental Illness
Describes
Common Language
Comprehensive guidelines.
Psychoanalytic
Evolutionary
Cognitive
abnormal behavior results from internal conflict in the unconscious stemming from early childhood traumas
Perspective
Behavioral
Approach
abnormal behavior consists of maladaptive responses learned through reinforcement of the wrong kinds of behavior
Humanist
abnormal behavior results from conditions of worth society places upon the individual, which cause a poor self-concept
sees abnormal behavior as coming from irrational and illogical perceptions and belief systems
Approach
Psychology
consider mental disorders as harmful evolutionary dysfunctions that occur when evolved psychological mechanisms do not perform their naturally selected functions effectively
Biological
Perspective
explains abnormal behavior as the result of neurochemical and/or hormonal imbalances, genetic predispositions, structural damage to the brain, or faulty processing of information in the brain
There are 2 Types
Neurotic
Psychotic
Anxiety Disorders
Class of psychological disorders characterized by excessive or inappropriate tension, apprehension, and worry. They were called neuroses in earlier diagnostic manuals.
Symptoms
Mood
Physical
Cognitiv
e
Phobias
an irrational or excessive fear of an object or situation
Social
Specific
Agoraphobia
Anxiety disorder in which chronic and persistent symptoms of anxiety develop in response to an extreme physical or psychological trauma
PTSD
3 Symptoms
Panic Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
repeated episodes of sheer terror (panic attacks)
continually tense and apprehensive
unwanted
repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/o
r actions (compulsions)
Symptoms
nagging thoughts, unable to control
repetitive behaviors and rituals.
Assessment 1
1. What is the DSM-IV? How do psychologists use it?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of categorizing people by the DSM-IV?
3. What are the 6 causes/explanations for
mental illness? Which one do you agree
most with and why?
Assessment 2
1. What is anxiety? When is it normal? Abnormal?
2. Give two examples of anxiety disorders.
3. What is a panic attack??

Phobias
Dissociative and Somatoform Disorders.
class of disorders involving changes in consciousness, memory, or self-identity that fracture the continuity or "wholeness" of an individual’s personality
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
:
characterized by the appearance of multiple personalities in the same individual
multiple personality or split personality
Women tend to have 15+ identities;
Men average around 8
Somatoform disorder:

class of psychological disorders involving physical ailments or complaints that cannot be explained by organic causes
Body dysmorphic disorder -

the affected person is excessively concerned about and preoccupied by a perceived defect in his or her physical features (body image).
Hypochondriasis:

disorder in which there is unrealistic concern that one’s physical complaints are signs of underlying serious illness
Schizophrenia:
A Different Reality
a severe and chronic psychological disorder characterized by disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions, and behavior
Ever wonder what it's like to experience the world like a schizophrenic?
Symptoms:
Hallucinations
:

false sensory perceptions
Delusions:

erroneous beliefs that are maintained even when compelling evidence to the contrary is presented
Negative symptom:

behavioral deficits associated with schizophrenia such as withdrawal, isolation, or apathy
Disorganized schizophrenia:
Incoherent speech, inappropriate mood, hallucinations and delusions.
Make no sense when they talk and act in a very bizarre way that is inappropriate for the situation
Paranoid schizophrenia:

Characterized by the appearance of delusional thinking accompanied by frequent auditory hallucinations
Most common subtype of schizophrenia
Characterized by delusions of grandeur, persecution, and reference
Catatonic schizophrenia:

subtype characterized by bizarre movements postures, or grimaces
Disordered movement patterns, sometimes immobile stupor, or frenzied and excited behaviors
Sufferers might remain in one position, becoming “statues” with waxy flexibility
A pattern of
behavioral and psychological
symptoms

that
causes
significant personal distress,
impairs the ability to function in
one or
Common obsessions: concern with dirt, germs, or toxins; something terrible will happen; symmetry, order, or exactness
Common compulsions: excessive hand washing, tooth brushing, or grooming; repeating rituals; checking doors, locks, appliances, and homework
Full transcript