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Physical and Chemical properties of Earth and its neighborin

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Michelle Jeigh Griego

on 28 July 2016

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Transcript of Physical and Chemical properties of Earth and its neighborin

Physical and Chemical properties of Earth and its neighboring planets
(Venus and Mars)
EARTH
Earth, our home, is the third planet from the sun. It is the only planet known to have an atmosphere containing free oxygen, oceans of liquid water on its surface, and, of course, life.
 Earth is the fifth largest of the planets in the solar system — smaller than the four gas giants, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, but larger than the three other rocky planets, Mercury, Mars and Venus.

EARTH
Earth has a diameter of roughly 8,000 miles (13,000 kilometers), and is round because gravity pulls matter into a ball, although it is not perfectly round, instead being more of an "oblate spheroid" whose spin causes it to be squashed at its poles and swollen at the equator.



EARTH
Roughly 71 percent of Earth's surface is covered by water, most of it in the oceans. About a fifth of Earth's atmosphere is made up of oxygen, produced by plants. While scientists have been studying our planet for centuries, much has been learned in recent decades by studying pictures of Earth from space.

EARTH SCIENCE
Venus
It has a similar size, mass, density and gravity, as well as a very similar chemical composition. In other ways, Venus is very different than Earth, with its high surface temperature, crushing pressure, and poisonous atmosphere. Let's take a look at some of the characteristics of Venus.

MARS
Mars, the fourth planet from the Sun, was named for the Roman god of war. It is a barren, desolate, crater-covered world prone to frequent, violent dust storms. It has little oxygen, no liquid water, and ultraviolet radiation that would kill any known life-form. Temperatures range from about 80°F (27°C) at midday to about −100°F (−73°C) at midnight. Because of its striking red appearance in the sky, Mars is known as the "red planet."

Mars is roughly 140 million miles (225 million kilometers) away from the Sun. It has a diameter of 4,200 miles (6,800 kilometers), just over half the diameter of Earth. Its rotation on its axis is slightly longer than one Earth day. Since it takes Mars 687 (Earth) days to orbit the Sun, its seasons are about twice as long as those on Earth.


Physical properties of Mars
Mars has numerous Earth like features. The two distinguishing features mark the planet's northern hemisphere. The first is a 15-mile-high (24-kilometer-high) volcano called Olympus Mons. Measuring 375 miles (600 kilometers) across, it is larger than any other in the solar system.
Mars, as seen from space by Viking 1. The planet is slightly more than one-tenth as massive as Earth. (Reproduced by permission of National Aeronautics and Space Administration


Mars has numerous Earth like features. The two distinguishing features mark the planet's northern hemisphere. The first is a 15-mile-high (24-kilometer-high) volcano called Olympus Mons. Measuring 375 miles (600 kilometers) across, it is larger than any other in the solar system.
Mars, as seen from space by Viking 1. The planet is slightly more than one-tenth as massive as Earth. (Reproduced by permission of National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

Physical Properties
Earth's Atmosphere.
Earth's Chemical Composition.
Interior Structure: Core, Mantle, Crust.
The Age of Earth.

Chemical composition
. Earth's mass is approximately 5.97×1024 kg (5,970 Yg). It is composed mostly of iron (32.1%), oxygen (30.1%), silicon (15.1%), magnesium (13.9%), sulfur (2.9%), nickel (1.8%), calcium (1.5%), and aluminum (1.4%), with the remaining 1.2% consisting of trace amounts of other elements.

Earth's Atmosphere
. The atmosphere is a mixture of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%), and other gases (1%) that surrounds Earth. High above the planet, the atmosphere becomes thinner until it gradually reaches space. It is divided into five layers. Most of the weather and clouds are found in the first layer.

Interior Structure: Core, Mantle, Crust.
4.543 
billion years

Mars is also marked by what appear to be dried riverbeds and flash-flood channels. These features could mean that ice below the surface melts and is brought above ground by occasional volcanic activity. The water may temporarily flood the landscape before boiling away in the low atmospheric pressure. Another theory is that these eroded areas could be left over from a warmer, wetter period in Martian history. Mars has two polar caps. The northern one is larger and colder than the southern. Two small moons, Phobos and Deimos, orbit the planet.
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