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NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

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Zelle Dapitan

on 29 November 2014

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Transcript of NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

ADHD
MENTAL RETARDATION
MENTAL RETARDATION
INTRODUCTION
ASPERGERS SYNDROME
RETTS SYNDROME
ASPERGERS SYNDROME
RETTS SYNDROME
TOURETTES SYNDROME
TOURETTE SYNDROME
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS
Pattern of behavior involving inattention and/or hyperactivity/impulsitivity (Anwar & Gorman, 2014).





Signs and symptoms:
Inattention, hyperactivity and impulsitivity

“What’s it like to have ADHD?”








Diagnosis
Psychiatric evaluation
Diagnosis is made by age 12, more common in males than females

Treatment/Management
PEPS- Psychotherapy
Education
Pharmacology
Strenghts


A neurodevelopmental condition characterized by the loss of spoken language and hand use.
Dr. Andreas Rett (1966)
Regression (speech, hand skills and gait)

Signs and Symptoms
slowed growth
loss of normal movement & coordination
loss of communication & thinking ability
abnormal hand & eye movements
breathing problems
irritability
seizures
scoliosis
Hallmark (repetitive hand movements constant while awake)

Diagnosis
Genetic testing (MeCP2 gene)
infancy (6-18 months)
females (1 in every 10,000)

A condition that is characterized by the delay in the development of basic skills, difficulties in social interaction and communication with restricted and repetitive patterns of interest.
Hans Asperger (1944)
"Aspies"

Signs and symptoms

Problems with social skills
Eccentric or repetitive behaviors (hand wringing or finger twisting)
Unusual preoccupations or rituals (specific order)
Limited range of interests (sports, music etc)
Coordination problems (clumsy)
Skilled or talented (math, science etc)

A disorder characterized by multiple motor and vocal tics, which are sudden, rapid, involuntary and occurs repeatedly in the same way or at different periods during the illness.

The cause is Unknown.

Signs/Symptoms:
Facial ticsFacial grimacing
Neck or head jerking, neck stretching
Coprolalia
Copropraxia



Diagnosis:

Criteria: Must meet Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision
Both multiple motor and vocal tics present during the illness
Onset of tics occurred before age 18 Presence of tics nearly everyday or intermittently during a period of one year and that no tic-free period lasting for more than 3 consecutive months

Nsg Diagnosis
Risk for self-directed/other directed violence related to low tolerance for frustration
Impaired social interaction related to impulsiveness and oppositional and aggressive behaviour
Low self-esteem related to shame associated with tic behaviours

Cause:
Biological factors
Psychosocial factors

Signs/Symptoms: (not limited to)
Decreased cognitive and intellectual functioning
Deficits in psychomotor skills
Difficulties in performing self-care activities
Degrees of neurologic impairment
Depressed or labile mood

Diagnosis:
Comprehensive personal and family medical history
Complete physical examination
Screening tests which measures Intellectual functioning & Adaptive functioning
Onset

Treatment:
Behaviour management
Environmental supervision
Monitoring of the child's developmental needs and problems
Programs that maximize speech, language, cognitive, psychomotor, social, self-care, and occupational skills
Family therapy to help parents develop coping skills and deal with guilt or anger

Community Support:
Canadian Mental Health association
Canadian Association for Community Living
Complex developmental disorder of brain function accompanied by intellectual and behavioral deficits . Includes Classic Autism and Asperger’s Syndrome (Anwar & Gorman, 2014)

Signs and symptoms
Impaired social communication and interaction
Repetitive patterns of behavior
Learning disabilities, sensory sensitivity

Diagnosis
Failure to meet developmental task by 12 months of age
Loss of acquired language or social skills
Affects male than females

Treatment/Management
No cure
Home based and school-based intensive programs e.g. ABA therapy
Medications
REFERENCES
Nursing Diagnosis
Impaired social interaction
Impaired verbal communication
Risk for injury
Self care deficit














Community Support:
Autism Ontario (Durham Region)
http://www.autismontario.com/client/aso/ao.nsf/Durham/Support+Groups
Geneva Centre for Autism (Toronto)
http://www.autism.net/

ASD
Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Mental Health Nursing – NRSG -10042
Theresa Markus
25th of October, 2014


Catherine Aliman
Mary Grace Felix
Rizzelle Dapitan
CASE STUDY:

You are a community health nurse assigned for the first time to work with a 7-year boy with autism. Upon observing the child, you noticed that he frequently bangs/hit his head on the wall and does not make any eye contact. What strategies or approach would you use to make contact with him

STRATEGIES:


Review with the child’s regular routine with the parents.
Offer familiar toys and reduce stimulation.
Provide positive feedback for alternative behaviors.
Establish consistency by assigning the same caregivers as possible.
(Gorman & Anwar, 2014)

Treatment - No cure (symptomatic)
Medication - breathing irregularities and motor difficulties and anticonvulsant drugs may be used to control seizures
Occupational, Speech and Physical Therapy

Community Support
ORSA Ontario Rett Syndrome association
IRSF www.rettsyndrome.org
Diagnosis
unknown cause
physical and neurological exam (dyspraxia, low muscle tone and coordination issues)
can be detected during childhood but not diagnosed until adolescence or adulthood
1 in 165 estimated 70,000 individual in Ontario has ASD

Treatment
Special education
Behaviour modification
Occupational therapy
Social skill therapy
Medication (anxiety, depression, )

Community Support
Aspergers Society of Ontario
Treatment:
Family Psychotherapy
Medications

Community Support:
Tourette Syndrome Foundation of Canada
Tourette Syndrome Association of Ontario
Medication
Psychostimulant- Methylphenidate (Ritalin)
Dextroamphetamine/Amphetamine (Adderal)
Nonstimulant- Atomoxetine (Strattera)
Bupropion (Wellbutrin)
Clonidine

Nursing Diagnosis:
Ineffective coping
Alteration in self-concept
Self-esteem
Impaired social interaction
Compromised family coping

Community Support
Children’s Mental Health Ontario
http://www.kidsmentalhealth.ca/parents/adhd.php
Baybridge Counselling Centre (Hamilton) http://www.bayridgecounsellingcentres.ca/adhd.html
Nursing Diagnosis
Risk for Injury
Self-care deficit
Impaired verbal communication
Delayed growth and development
Ineffective coping related to inadequate coping skills secondary to development delay
OCD
Bipolar
Paranoid
Full transcript