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Special Senses: Vision!

This lecture looks at the anatomy and physiology of the eye.
by

Paul Osterman

on 11 January 2016

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Transcript of Special Senses: Vision!

Special Senses:
smell/taste, hearing, and sight.
special sense receptors:
detect stimuli

Vision
External Anatomy
of the Eye
Eyelids

cover, protect eye
tarsal glands:

lube eye
conjunctiva:

memb. lining eyelids/ball, secretes lube mucus.
pinkeye!
Lacrimal Apparatus
gland and ducts
lac gland:
secretes salty tears w/ lysozyme
lac canaliculi/sac/duct:
collect/drain tears
subject to inflammation
Extrinsic Eye mm
produce eye movements, i.e., tracking/convergence
Internal Structures: the Eyeball
hollow, fluid-filled ball w/ lens that separates ant/post chambers
Fibrous Layer
outer
sclera:
white
cornea:
transparent w/ pain receptors
Vascular Layer
middle layer
choriod:
blood and dark pigment
ciliary body:
holds lens via ciliary zonule
iris:
smooth mm
,
relaxes/constricts pupil
Sensory Layer
inner layer
retina:
2 sheets, pigmented (outer), and neural (inner)
neural layer:
has rods/cones (photoreceptors) all over
rods:
detect motion in dim light, peripheral
cones:
red, blue, green, visual acuity in bright light (fovea centralis)
optic disc:
optic nerve (axons) exit eye (blind spot)
Physiology of Vision
Visual Pigments
Path of Light/Refraction
Visual Fields
Eye Reflexes
Eye Problems
stacked inside rods/cones
absorb light E, change shape, cause AP
rhodopsin:
need vit. A to create a protein that detects light
refraction:
light bends when passing through diff. densities.
path:
cornea, aq. humor, lens

(variable), vitreous humor, retina
rest:
distance vision
accomodation:
bend lens to focus light from close image
real image:
reversed, upside dn, sm.
impulse from optic nerve to optic chiasma (x) to optic tract to visual cortex
info from lateral side of eye on same side of brain and medial side of contralateral eye.
binocular vision:
overlapping fields
Convergence:
eyes move medially to look at something close
accomodation pup. reflex:
pupils constrict to look at something close
Watery Eyes
inflammation nasal cavity blocks drainage.
Blindness
night blindness:
lack of vit. A
colorblindness:
nonfxning red/green cones
http://www.wondergy.com/webscience/color.html
Vision Deterioration
cataracts:
hard, cloudy lens
glaucoma:
incr. P in aq. humor damages retina
Hemianopia
lose same side of visual field of both eyes.
Do You Have Emmetropia?
focal plane (image) lands on retina
Myopia
focal plane in front of retina
eye too long or lens/cornea too curved
correct w/ concave lens
nearsighted
Hyperopia
focal plane behind retina
from short eyeball, flattened lens
correct w/ convex lens
farsighted
Vision Deterioration
detached retina:
vision loss in area where retina no longer absorbing light
Full transcript