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Genetically modified Crops: Pro's and Con's
Transcript of Genetically modified Crops: Pro's and Con's
Pro's and Con's What? GMO (genetically modified organism):
An organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques
Genetic Engineering Techniques:
First usage by Herbert Boyer and Stanley Cohen in 1973
Commercialized since 1976
Spread of GMC Cartagena Protocol European Level World Trade Organisation Ethical Questions Trade and Economical issues Legal Framework Introduction Pro's and Con's Critical Assessment Critical Assessment Impact on birds, insects and soil biota
Interaction between wild and native populations Against GMCs Against GMCs Transfer of allergenic genes
Mixing of GM products in the food chain
Transfer of antibiotic resistance
The long term impacts cannot be predicted Against GMCs Loss of farmers' access to plant material
Intellectual property rights could slow research
Impact of "terminator" technologies Against GMCs GM have largely benefited northern countries and markets, not small scale farmers in the developing world.
Animal rights and experiments Food Security and Health Environmental and Scientific Issues Pro GMC's Environmental risk assessments
- The GMC
- The Potential Receiving Environment
- Unintended Effects
The crops resist diseases or pests, higher yields and grow in more unfavorable conditions Pro GMC's Case-by-Case approach:
- Thorough Risk Assessment Test for
internationally traded GM Food
- No effect on human health has been found
Main Issues of Concern:
- Allergies = Not found
- Gene Transfer = Unlikely
- Outcrossing and interaction = National Strategies
Healthier Food Pro GMC's Pro GMC's Lower prices and better product quality
Free trade is necessary "No ethical Problems" - Regulation EC 1829/2003: General framework for regulating
genetically modified food and feed in the EU
- Directive 2001/18 EC: The deliberate release of GMO 's into the
- Regulation (EC) 1830/2003: The traceability and labeling
- Regulation (EC) 619/2011: harmonisation the implementation of the
zero-tolerance policy on non-authorised genetically modified
material in feed - SPS Agreement:
Discussions on the applicability for GMO’s
SPS can not affect the regulation already established for the GMO’s because GMO’s and the categories within the agreement are considered as different matters
- TBT Agreement:
Allows governments to take measures if they have a legitimate objective, such as protecting health or the environment.
No more trade-restrictive than necessary Entered into force on 11 September 2003
Seeks to protect biological diversity
Defines 'living modified organism'
Application: Transboundary movement, transit, handling and use of all LMO's
Contrary point of view in the two sides of the Atlantic
The power of public opinion
Lack of information and knowledge