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Korean War

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Elise Zhou

on 6 March 2014

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Transcript of Korean War

Yalu River
Washington D.C.
World Domination by USSR
Undermine Communism
Domino Theory
Military Technology
North Korean/Chinese Artillery
Battle Strategies
Aftereffects of WWII
shortages--no ROK tanks, fighter aircrafts, or bombers
tanks- Chaffee, Sherman, Pershing
bazookas- M9A1
machine guns- M1917 Browning
shotguns- Browning Auto 5
rifles- M1 Garand
pistols- M1911
hand grenades- MkII
Willys Overland Jeep MB

Could call for special items
Smoke, illumination, or high-explosive ammunition
required a different shell-and-fuse combination
Recognition of Communism Rising
haha your little bubble in the middle of the pacific lol
UN/ROK Artillery
155-mm round weighed100 lbs
155-mm and 8-inch howitzers fired separate-loading ammunition
primer, propellant, projectile, and fuse
105-mm projectile weighed 50 lbs
8-inch round weighed an average of 198 lbs
fired semifixed ammunition
propellant was divided into charges, charges were tied together and stored in cartridge case
Military Response
China- Mao Zedong, Cultural Revolution
Russia- Stalin, Iron Curtain, Cold War, Proxy Wars
Government Reaction: Surprised, Fearful, Urgency
Growing nuclear power
Power growing: first opponent to America as a world power
Marshall Plan: financial relief for the reconstruction of European economies.
If one country fell to Communism, then others would follow, like dominoes.
Main point: The next communist targets could be important trade countries, such as Japan, and would negatively affect the balance and reconstruction of post world war 2 nations
Originally Demilitarized because of cuts and more funding for nuclear weapons: needs a speedy recovery of army, especially with Navy and Air Force
Truman Doctrine: Contain and stop the spread of Communism in favor of Freedom and Democracy-> save Greece and Turkey
Report NSC 68- To push back communism, American foreign policy, New World Order
American National Security Council
Russia was a growing threat, and the spread of communism seemed very real
China's influence East: Korea, Taiwan
Russia's influence west: Greece, Turkey
Communist Hunting: Senator Joseph McCarthy-> McCarthyism, HUAC-> Housing Un American Activities Committee
A "Soft" President
McCarthyism rising-> domestic pressure for Truman to act, and fear of Republican power. Similar cases FBI Harassment, Rosenberg Case- Ethel and Julius, McCarran Internal Security Act
More training and the General Reserve.
Gathering of allies: Respond to America, such as UK, Australia, and Canada
New generation of soldiers, and less likely to be replaceable, includes the integration of African American Soldiers (Executive Order 9981)-> begin with 100,000, end with 600,000.
South Korean/UN Tactics
unobserved fire missions
lack of ammunition
strong air force, more men
infantry attacks
air bombing raids
trench warfare
North Korean/Chinese/Soviet Tactics
Soviet Union in battle
Soviet influences
war-determining factors
combined arms operations
North Korean military influences
night raids
sneak attacks
offensive attacks
Few naval battles
Aerial battles became significant
Unfavorable terrain
Reliance on the U.N. and NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), especially when Dwight D. Eisenhower became the Supreme Commander
American People and the War
Inactive reserves were not pleased
United States Air Force
fighter and bomber jet units
P-80 Shooting Star
F9F Panther
F-86 Sabre
first wartime helicopters
Sikorsky H04S-1, HO3
Able to join the reserves because of the The Women's Armed Forces Integration Act of 1948
1200 Female soldiers enlisted at the start of the war, and the women of the Far East Command increased from 629 in 1950 to 2,600 in 1951
Douglass MacArthur made General
Public Opinion at the Start
Confidence Confusion Curiosity
Korea was unheard of, and was thought to be a short war.
Many believed that going to war was the right thing to do, with an 81% approval rating
Level of Concern
mixed because war had the possibility of being something more

Others didn't care and wanted to revert to a time of fun and consumerism, especially with the baby boom and security with the U.N.
Public Opinion on the Truman Administration
Negative: Some felt that Truman was too concerned with his farming programs, which cut spending in the military, and when he relieved General MacArthur because he wanted to invade North Korea, many people saw him in a negative light.
support when times were good, no support in difficult times.
What Truman Wanted
Funding for the War: Defense Production Act
setback 1: steel and coal strike
Set back 2: Inflation
workers didn't want wage cuts and
control of companies.
M1917 Machine Gun
Browning Auto 5 Shotgun
M1 Garand Rifle
M1911 Pistol
MkII Hand Grenade
shortages in food, consumer goods and housing appear, farmers annoyed.
American public began to be furious.
M9A1 Bazooka
Didn't understand the severity of war, and how a small Asian nation can cause so much trouble.
Willys Overland Jeep
property, equipment, supplies, component parts of raw materials needed for the national defense
World War II
Largely similar to that of the opponents
fighter jets, tanks, rocket launchers, howitzers, light land vehicle, and helicopters
Fewer supplies and less technology
Supplemented by Soviets and the Chinese
American Pastimes of the War Era
Displaying their slight disinterest:
The Fad Era
Swing, Bop, Bunny Hop, The Twist
Hula Hoops, Army Men, Mr. Potato Head
Marilyn Monroe, James Dean, Color TVs (hint at racial disharmony). HUAC- hollywood attack
Gregory Corso, Jack Kerouac, and Allen Ginsberg-> criticize life.
Poodle Hair cuts, circle skirts, pants for women, bolero jackets
Soviet Union Indirect involvement in the War:
Why would Stalin help with the North Korean invasion?
Maintain and expand Communist governments
Did not want US to have a close base to attack Soviet territory
Wanted to establish influence in Korea just as US did in Japan
How did the Soviet Union help the North Koreans and Chinese?
Provided weapons
North Korea-tanks
Provided medical assistance
Provided soldiers/pilots
Stationed on Chinese soil
Not allowed to enter Korea
Afraid of direct contact, which could cause WWIII
Provided training
Chinese involvement in the War:
The Korean War
June 25, 1950 - July 27, 1953

North Korean Invasion into South Korea:
June 25, 1950
Why? - North wanted to united the country under one single Communist government
Invasion was quick and successful
South Korea not prepared at all
Korean Aid Bill 1949
Sent only rifles and light artillery, no tanks or airplanes
North Korea fully equipped with tanks from Soviet Union
Had support of Soviet Union
First Battle at Seoul:
July 1950
North Koreans pushed through to capture Seoul
Continued seizure of Southern land
Aftermath of War
Heavy military presence in South Korea
Increasing interest in international politics
Battle of Osan:
July 5, 1950
First battle between US and North Korea
Purpose: Delay North Korea advance while US troops form a stronger defense line in the south
Soldiers had outdated weapons
Half amount of men needed
Strategy: Dig trenches behind two hills
Hidden at first
Guns useless against tanks
Forced to retreat
40% captured, injured, killed
Showed American unpreparedness for war
Limited men and outdated weapons
Troops poorly trained
Abandoned positions
Left weapons and wounded
Prevented several hours of advancement
Military base in Asia (Korea)
Race relations in America
Animosity with Russia
Maintain a large and strong army
Questioning America's Power
Tehran Conference (1943) and Yalta Conference (1945) - Allies agree that Soviet Union could declare war on Japan
Potsdam Conference (1945) - Allies agree to divide Korea
Moscow Conference (1945) United States and Soviet Union agree to occupy Korea as a trusteeship at 38th parallel - America would occupy southern half, Soviets the northern half
Would oversee country for 5 years
1910 - Japan annexes Korea
Conscripts 2.6 million Korean forced laborers during World War II
Relies on Korean food and metals to supply war effort
Han River Bridge Bombing
June 28, 1950
Northern invasion into South was increasing rapidly
South Korea bombed Han bridge
Bridge connected South and North
Bombing not successful
Intended to stop Northern forces into South Korea
South Korean Army (5th division) Cut off
China's People's Liberation Army helps refugee Koreans fight against Imperial Japanese Army
Kim II Sung - joins Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army
Eventually recruited as Major in Red Army
Unsan County
Division of Korea
Cairo Conference (1943) - Roosevelt, Churchill, Chiang Kai-Shek agree that Japan should lose all territories
Chongchon River
Respect and Interest in China and
Chosin Resevoir
Battle of Pusan
Battle of Onjong
Fought between South Korea and China
October 25 to October 29, 1950
Chongchon River valley, near the town of Onjong
entrance of Chinese into battle
two Chinese infantry regiments attacked Army 3rd Battalion
South Koreans lured and trapped
Forced UN II Corps back to former positions
US Eighth Army right flank exposed
Korean Reaction
August 4, 1950- September 18, 1950
United Nations against North Korea
Korean populace revolted
Autumn Uprising
Jeju Uprising
Railroad workers strike in Pusan
Battle of Unsan
Accidental encounter between Chinese and American forces
Pincer movement-north, northwest, west
Simultaneous with Battle of Onjong
Significant loss for Americans
pushed back farther
lack of Chinese supply lines
End of First Phase Campaign
assured Chinese authorities
Home by Christmas Campaign
1948 - Republic of South Korea established
Elect Syngman Rhee as leader
Soviets also establish Communist North Korean government - Stalin allows Kim II Sung to be

Syngman Rhee and Kim II Sung both want Korea to be united under one political system
1948 - Soviets withdraw from Korea
1949 - Americans withdraw from Korea
Battle of Chongchon River
Second Phase Campaign
Home by Christmas
Surprise attacks in the Ch'ongch'on River Valley
November 25 to December 2,1950
destroyed the Eighth United States Army right flank
opened back to Chinese forces
Chinese damaged UN greatly in following battles
UN forces unorganized from surprise attacks
managed to escape capture and retreated to 38th parallel
Kim II Sung wants Korea to be united under communist system
North Koreans had support of Soviet Union and People's Republic of China
1950 - Kim II Sung travels to Moscow and Beijing to secure support for war with South Korea - earns support of both nations
June - North Korean People's Army crosses 38th parallel and attack
Rhee evacuates Seoul
orders Bodo League Massacre against Communists
Seoul falls - North Koreans commit Seoul National University Hospital Massacre
Beginning of War
Battle of Chosin Resevoir
November 26 to December 11, 1950
UN against China
Chinese invasion of northeastern X Corps
fought against enemies and the weather
"The Chosin Few"
UN forces surrounded by Chinese
managed to break away
Indirect victory
lost the land, but inflicted damages onto 8 divisions
blew up Hungnam Port to prevent use
Complete UN withdrawal from North Korea
UN forces were pushed back to Pusan Peninsula
UN forces able to prevent further invasion into the South
Advantage in troop size
Navy and Air Force
North Koreans:
Limited supplies
Massive losses
Impact: The battle would be the furthest the North Korean troops would advance in the war

Ultimately prevented the entire seize of Korea

Ended North Korean advancement
Battle of Inchon: September 10-19, 1950
UN against North Korea
Major General: MacArthur
Battle of Chipyong-ni
February 13-15, 1951
UN victory against Chinese
boosted morale
defeated many Chinese forces while sacrificing few UN soldiers
pushed back the Chinese
planned to force UN to the sea
previously seen as impenetrable
Started peace negotiations
American Response
Amphibious invasion
Surprised invasion
Successful despite harmful and dangerous landing
"Mr. President, I have very serious news. The North Koreans have invaded South Korea." - Dean Acheson (Secretary of State)
Americans fear that war in Korea could involve Chinese and Soviets as well
Felt obligated to intervene - reminded of Hitler's appeasements and consequences that resulted
Substantial U.S. forces occupying Japan after World War II - could be made to fight North Koreans
But Americans also fear that fighting Korea would instigate Soviet attack - reminded of Pearl Harbor
Ploy by Soviets to catch Americans off guard
However, Truman fears "chain reaction" more - claimed that United States would support effort of United Nations to fight North Korea
Cut North Korean supply lines
Attack from West and South
Gained Kimpo Airfield
Secured foothold in South Korea
October 1, 1950 Crossing of the 38th parallel
Capture of Pyongyang City
October 19, 1950
UN forces broke through the 38th parellel and have advanced into the capital city of North Korea
Northern Korean Army dwindling
UN invasion of entire North Korea
MacArthur wanted to invade China
Cross Yalu River to hit military and supply
Disconnect Northern supply line
MacArthur receives warning from China
Shows America as championing universal democracy, and maintaining reign as the strongest world power.
What Eisenhower Wanted
End to the War
Atomic Weapons threat
“The United States will have to break this deadlock.”
Smaller attacks, and negotiations.
"New Look" ideology
crusade against communism
1. Strengthen the CIA
2. Strengthen allies/ non aligned
3. Maintain Economy
4.Strong Nuclear Weapons
Americans very happy with the outcome
Revert to the idea that the Korean wasn't a big deal, as Eisenhower ended it so quickly.
Truman in a Deadlock: Had to please the people, Had to please the government.
African Americans were particularly happy because Eisenhower supported integration into the army
African Americans Gain Recognition
Many come back from the war with medals
This war recognized African American contributions- Jesse L.Brown of fire squadron 32
Executive order also pertained to school and neighborhoods
The beginnings of racial acknowledgment.
Threat to their country
Supporter of Communism
Maintain relations with Communist parties
Afraid of American foothold
Establishment of Democratic society on their border
Led to later invasion
Chinese Communist demands
MacArthur released
Communist offensive before negotiations
July 10, 1951-Kaesong
fighting continues
2 years and 17 days for cease-fire
line of demarcation
deadlocked in 1952 over exchange of prisoners
UN-voluntary repatriation
April 1952-General Ridgway transferred to NATO command, General Mark W. Clark
April 1953-exchange of sick and wounded prisoners
Communists agree to voluntary repatriation under supervision of neutral nations
prisoners who refused repatriation were placed in custody
representatives of home countries
prisoners not persuaded to return were to be released to a neutral country
Eisenhower's election as President
Death of Joseph Stalin
June, 1953-demilitarized zone
neither side can increase military strength during the armistice
neutral-nations supervisory commission
July 27, 1953-armistice signed
Operation Killer and Operation Ripper
Operation Killer
February 22, 1951
Meant to remove forces below the Arizona Line
to kill--"Killer"
General Ridgway, MacArthur
UN victory
Operation Ripper
March 6, 1951
To destroy enemy forces and equipment and prevent an offensive, to capture Ch'unch'on, Seoul and get past the 38th parallel (Line Idaho)
fourth time Seoul changed hands
communist forces often withdrew before significant damage (Ch'unch'on)
UN victory
Truman's Statement of June 27
"KOREA the Government forces, which were armed to prevent border raids and to preserve internal security, were attacked by invading forces from North Korea. The Security Council of the United Nations called upon the invading troops to cease hostilities and to withdraw to the 38th parallel. This they have not done, but on the contrary have pressed the attack. The Security Council called upon all members of the United Nations to render every assistance to the United Nations in the execution of this resolution. In these circumstances I have ordered United States air and sea forces to give the Korean Government troops cover and support.

The attack upon Korea makes it plain beyond all doubt that communism has passed beyond the use of subversion to conquer independent nations and will now use armed invasion and war. It has defied the orders of the Security Council of the United Nations issued to preserve international peace and security. In these circumstances the occupation of Formosa by Communist forces would be a direct threat to the security of the Pacific area and to United States forces performing their lawful and necessary"
Soviet Union-Indirect Involvement in the War
Why Did Stalin Support the Invasion of North Korea?
Maintain Communist Governments and to expand Communist Governments
Did not want the US to have a close base to Soviet territory
Establish influence in Korea just as the US did in Japan
Chinese Intervention
Uncertainty among CHinese leaders
Mao Zedong
Zhou Enlai
General Lin Bao
People's Volunteer Army
Soviet contributions
Crossed the Yalu River on October 19
Nov 1950-Feb 1951, U.S. bombed bridges
Sino-Korean Friendship bridge
Offensive phases
"I am under no illusion that our present strategy of using means short of total war to achieve our ends and oppose communism is a guarantee that a world war will not be thrust upon us. But a policy of patience and determination without provoking a world war, while we improve our military power, is one which we believe we must continue to follow….
Under present circumstances, we have recommended against enlarging the war from Korea to also include Red China. The course of action often described as a limited war with Red China would increase the risk we are taking by engaging too much of our power in an area that is not the critical strategic prize.
Red China is not the powerful nation seeking to dominate the world. Frankly, in the opinion of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, this strategy would involve us in the wrong war, at the wrong place, at the wrong time, and with the wrong enemy."

General Omar Bradley, in response to General MacArthur

"On the other side of every mountain [was] another mountain."

- Lieutenant Colonel George Russell, a battalion commander with the Twenty-third Regiment of the Second Infantry Division
General MacArthur
War hero from World War II
Known for his ingenious plan at Inchon
Operation Ripper--Unauthorized declaration of ceasefire with Chinese
Replaced by General Matthew Ridgway
Relationship with Truman
Often authorized attacks without or even against Truman's approval
Revealed private military information and opinions to the public, making them representative of the government as a whole
"This was a most extraordinary statement for a military commander of the United Nations to issue on his own responsibility. It was an act totally disregarding all directives to abstain from any declarations on foreign policy. It was in open defiance of my orders as President and as Commander-in-Chief. This was a challenge to the authority of the President under the Constitution. It also flouted the policy of the United Nations. By this act MacArthur left me no choice - I could no longer tolerate his insubordination."

-President Truman
Full transcript