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Tajfel - Experiments in Intergroup Discrimination

ALBERTO CALDERON Y ROCIO AGUILERA
by

Rocio Aguilera Huberman

on 21 October 2013

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Transcript of Tajfel - Experiments in Intergroup Discrimination

Research
Observations
Experiments in intergroup discrimination
Tajfel 1970
Glossary
Results
Conclusions
Minimal group: Methodology employed in social psychology. Used for investigating the minimal conditions required for discrimination to occur between groups.
Ingroup: An ingroup, is a social group to which a person psychologically identifies as being a member.
Outgroup: An outgroup is a social group to which an individual does not identify.
Prejudice: An unfavorable opinion or feeling formed beforehand or without knowledge, thought, or reason.
Discrimination: Behavioural expression of prejudice.
Social identity theory: Studies the way in which people perceive and categorize themselves. (personal or self identity, collective identity)
Background
Europeans have lived group conflicts
Tajfel was a british jewish, he survived WW2
He wanted to explain the common set of characteristics of:
1- Prejudice towards outgroups
2- Behaviour of discrimination
Past studies focused on attitudes, he wanted to focus on behaviour to explain discrimination
Faber Castell
Faber Castell
Faber Castell
Faber Castell
Faber Castell
Study
Aim: To investigate the minimal conditions in which prejudice and discrimination occur.
Hypotheses: When intergroup categorization is present we are likely to act in a manner that discriminates against the outgroup and favors the ingroup
REMEMBER!
Tajfel´s inner motivation or aim is also important to take in account
Focus in behaviour rather than attitude
Experiment 1
Lab experiment
64 participants: boys from a school in Bristol (14-15 years)
-From the same year group and "house"
Variables
DV: Presence of discriminatory behaviour and judgement of the reward or penalty they were going to give to the individuals.
IV: Condition in which participants were put
We tend to favor ourselves and the group we´re in, even though we barely know about it (minimal group paradigm)
In the absence of an objective conflict or hostility, we still discriminate.
"Belonging to the best group" --> because of the participant´s presence in it
Participants brought to a lecture room
Dots were flashed on a screen an boys had to estimate the number.
Told that researchers were interested in the study of visual judgements
32-were told some people are consistently more accurate that others.
32 -were told that some people overestimate while others tend to underestimate- not related to accuracy
Better
Worse
Under estimators
Over estimators
IT WAS RANDOM
Independent groups
Told to which group they belonged individually
Once they knew to which group they belonged all 64 boys were asked to give points
First condition (Matrix sheet 1)
Ingroup
Ingroup
Second condition (Matrix sheet 2)
Outgroup
Outgroup
Third condition (Matrix sheet 3)
Ingroup
Outgroup
Experiment 2
48 new boys from bristol, they knew each other, 14-15 years
Aim: To analyse further the phenomenon of discrimination
Variables
IV: conditions in which the participant were put
DV: Presence of discriminatory behaviour and judgement of the reward or penalty they were going to give to the individuals.
Supposedly boys were allocated to their groups depending on their preference for paintings shown.
Kandinsky
Klee
Different matrices from experiment 1
Allowed participants to chose between this variables:
Maximum joint profit
Maximum in-group profit
Maximum Difference
The new Matrix
Results
The very act of categorization into groups is enough to produce conflict and discrimination.
In all groups in both conditions, gave more money to members of their own group than to members of the other group
Second experiment: Most important factor in making their choices was maximizing the differences between the two groups.
EVALUATION
Strengths:
- Lab experiment --> control
- Few ethical issues
Weaknesses:
- Deception
- Biased sample --> only boys (generalization)
- Replicable
- Data was only quantitative
- Lack of ecological validity
- Demand characteristics
FIN
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