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The Evolution of the Computer

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Sam Bridgwater

on 24 November 2014

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Transcript of The Evolution of the Computer

What is Input/Output?
Programming Languages
Integrated Circuits
Operating System
1960 - Atlas Supervisor;DOS/360;Exec I;OS/360
1980-PC-DOS;Lisa office system 7/7;OS-9;GNU;MS-DOS;Windows 1.0;Mac OS;OS/400SUN OS
1990-Mac OS 7.06;MINIX;Mac OS 9;LINUX;Windows 98;Windows 3.1;
2000-Moc OS X Snow Leopard;Windows XP;Apple ios;Google Android;Windows Vista;Windows 2000;;Windows 7;Windows 8
The Evolution of the Computer
External memory
First programming language
Low-level languages
First generation (1940-50): machine code
Second generation (1950-1958): assembly language
High-level languages
Third generation - 1958-85
Fourth generation - after 1985
Fifth generation - after 1990
First Programming Language
Ada Lovelace
Punch Cards
1725 - first Punch Cards used
1890 - Hollerith Machine
Floppy Disk
1971 - perfected and sold to mass market
1976 - IBM release
1983 - smaller Floppy Disk created
Compact Disk
1979 - Sony and Phillips
1982 - first CD ever created
1997 - CD-R/RW
USB Flash Drive
2001 - IBM sells 1st USB
2003 - IBM releases "Memory Key"
Present - holds 128GB and more
Cloud Computing
1999 - Salesforce.com
2002 - Amazon Web Services
2006 - Amazon launches EC2
2009 - Google Apps
The World Wide Web
Early history
Before the web...
A need to share information

Scientists & academics

Networking existed 100 years prior to the web
Before the Web
Birth of the Web
1945 - Vanevar Bush & the Memex machine
1961-62 - Leonard Kleinrock, J.C.R. Licklider & ARPANET

1965 - Ted Nelson coins the
term 'hypertext'

1968 - Doug Englebart & the
NLS system
Early History
Birth of the Web
1989 - Tim Berners-Lee proposes the WWW

1990 - CERN: First web server & website

1991 - FTP makes files available on the Web

1993 - CERN establishes that the WWW will be free & useable by all
First mouse invented and developed in the 60’s and patented on November 17, 1970
In 1999, Agilent develop the first LED-based optical mouse
In 2004, Agilent develop the laser-based mouse

Charles Babbage
Low-level Languages
High-level Languages
In 1954, IBM developed the Cathode Ray Tube
In 1990, XGA and UXGA were introduced
Late 1990’s, LCD monitors made it into the market
In 1953, first high-speed printer built by Remington Rand
In 1977, HP released the laserjet printer
In 1868, the typewriter was invented by Christopher Latham Sholes
In 1930’s, teletype machine and keypunches were developed
Late 60’s – 70’s, VDT tech and electric keyboards were made
The First Digital Computer
Over 30 Tonnes
18,000 Vacuum tubes
200 KW of power
Transistors and Vacuum Tubes
Jack Kilby
Robert Noyce
First Microprocessor
4-Bit CPU
Built in 1971
Made by Intel
First Integrated Circuit
Made from Germanium
Nobel Prize Winner
Developed 6 months after Kilbys
Made from Silicon
Full transcript