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Social Construction of Terrorism

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on 14 April 2016

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Transcript of Social Construction of Terrorism

"II. TERRORISM AND WMD: A REAL THREAT?" “Technology and Terrorism”. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2016.
Social Construction of Terrorism
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INTRODUCTION
What is Terrorism? How is it socially constructed?
History of Terrorism
Throughout The World
Home Grown Terrorism
What role does domestic terrorism play in the global spectrum?
How has the invasion and occupation of Iraq reshaped terrorism?
The Grave New World: Terrorism in the 21st Century
How has the globalized view on terrorism evolved?
The first decade of the 21st century was dominated by terror and terrorists. No one man was responsible although the pre-eminent face was that of Osama bin Laden.
9/11 completley changed the world. Masterminded by a Pakistani, Khaled Shaykh Muhammad, and Bin Laden, 9/11 would lead to two wars, the collapse of the Taliban’s Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan and a global war on terror.
The terrorists have many goals and many agendas but one of their objectives is to bait India into war with Pakistan. That was one target of the Parliament attack in 2001 and of the Mumbai murders in 2008.
Conclusion
// The Terrorist, The Victim, The Public
Americas Political Rhetoric
How has this election specifically influenced Americans beliefs towards terrorism?
#1
#2
Terrorism:
The United States Department of Defense defines terrorism as “the calculated use of unlawful violence or threat of unlawful violence to inculcate fear; intended to coerce or to intimidate governments or societies in the pursuit of goals that are generally political, religious, or ideological.”
By:Jesse Hedman and Tyler McConnell
Reign of Terror
First noted use of the word "Terrorist".
Used in a way defined as a group or someone who instills terror in others
The reign of terror was an era of violence during the French Revolution between September 1793 and June 1794. Roughly 16,500 killed by guillotine during this time.

Wall Street Bombing
September 1920
Bomb set off in New York Financial Sector
38 Dead, 143 Injured
Galleanists were believed to be behind the attacks
Followers of Luigi Galleani, a French Anarchist
Worst of the Earlier Terrorist Attacks on the United States
The "War" on Terror
Technology. The Good, The Bad, The Evil
26/11 Mumbai Attacks
November 26, 2008, India's most famous hotel Hotel Taj Majal
Bombings and Firefights around and inside the hotel
64-hours of firefights between Indian military and police against the attackers
100 innocent residents of the hotel were killed
10 different attacks/bombings that day in Mumbai
Hotel Taj Majal was the main target
Chechnya Border Attacks
March 24, 2001, The Chechnyan Border is between Russia and Georgia and Daghestan
3 Car Bombs placed on the border line
20 deaths, 100 injured; shared between the countries
9/11 World Trade Center Attack
September 11, 2001, Twin Towers, Pentagon, and a field in rural Pennsylvania hit by planes (4 planes total)
Roughly 2,800 killed, 8,900 injured
Attackers are Islamic terrorist funded by Osama Bin-Laden and Al-Qaeda
Began War on Terror for United States
How does this affect the United States specifically?
In a post-911 American society, “terrorism” has become an everyday term used to describe everything from guerilla style warfare against U.S. troops overseas to the mass murder of civilians in the name of foreign ideological and political agendas.
The American based view of terrorism is in many cases automatically associated with right-wing so-called “Islamic” extremism, disregarding the encompassing factors and groups that make up what terrorism in the modern world represents
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How has technology aided or revolutionized the way terrorism functions, recruits, and attacks?
Omar Shafik Hammami or Abu Mansoor Al-Amriki

Affiliation -Harakat al-Shabaab al-Mujahideen
Terrorists’ familiarity with IT (and the examples offered by hackers and criminals) make it increasingly possible that they will resort to cyberattacks or other forms of attacks on information systems, thus exploiting our societies’ reliance on computers and networked information systems.
Terrorist groups have used computer technology to threaten or attack national infrastructures, including national security infrastructures, and commercial firms. These attacks have reportedly generated actual damage only in the form of temporary disruption of services, public inconveniences, or financial loss
Citations

So how is terrorism constructed?

‘Terrorism is not a ‘given’ in the real world; it is instead an interpretation of events and their presumed causes.’ (Yehuda, 1993) The oft-quoted statement that ‘One person’s terrorist is another person’s freedom fighter’ reminds us that the definition of terrorism is based on how it is being constructed by an individual or state.
Perspectives to Terrorism
Three perspectives exist within defining terrorism: the terrorist's, the victim's, and the general public's. All views influence the internal and external views towards a group or indiviuals affiliation as terrorists
45 people have been killed in the United States by jihadi terrorists while 48 have been killed by people animated by, you know, anti-abortion, neo-Nazi, anti-government fanaticism.
In December, polling suggested that 24 percent of Republicans thought that terrorism was the number one issue facing the nation. Only 9 percent of Democrats felt the same way.
Statements from Ted Cruz wanting to carpet bomb Syria to destroy ISIS or Donald Trump wanting to ban all Muslim immigration truly makes no sense
Kohn, Sally. The Daily Beast. Newsweek/Daily Beast, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2016.
"25 Worst Acts of Terrorism Ever Committed." List25. N.p., 17 Feb. 2014. Web. 20 Mar. 2016.
"Who Are America's 'Homegrown Terrorists'?" NPR. NPR, n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2016.
"Deadly Attacks Since 9/11." Homegrown Extremism:. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2016.
Foreign Vs. Abroad Attacks
"Terror Attacks in the 21st Century: An Analysis." - Global Times. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2016.
"Terrorist Attacks and Related Incidents in the United States." Terrorist Attacks and Related Incidents in the United States. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2016.
"30 Terrorist Attacks and Plots by Homegrown Jihadists." Southern Poverty Law Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2016.
"Historic Timeline | National Counterterrorism Center." Historic Timeline | National Counterterrorism Center. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Mar. 2016.
The definition for terrorism and means of terrorizing people may have changed through the years, but the different perspectives and social constructions surrounding terrorism have not.
The invasion of Iraq in 2003 and the war resulting from it gave way to the creation of ISIS and other radical groups. Security forces both from Iraq and abroad soon fled and an insurgency began.
Medias Role
The occupation of Iraq (not Afghanistan as the insurgents may have hoped) was much more benefical for the mujahideen cause by providing continual coverage of American troops abusing Muslim's.
From this, the Sunni population became continually aggravated. The national army was dissolved and from this, many individuals ended up without a job, without a future, and frustrated towards any and all Americans.
Once the US began striking ISIS in 2014 an estimated 6000 recruits in 6 weeks alone
The 2003 American invasion and occupation of Iraq created the pre-conditions for radical Sunni groups, like ISIS, to take root. America, rather unwisely, destroyed Saddam Hussein’s secular state machinery and replaced it with a predominantly Shiite administration.

America became caught in a confused state as to why they were fighting. 400,000 American soldiers got caught up in a war for reasons many will never understand.
Every lethal terrorist attack in the United States since 9/11, whether in Fort Hood or Boston or San Bernardino, has been conducted by American citizens or legal permanent residents.
As stated by Obama "Prejudice and discrimination helps ISIS and undermines our national security". Though this seems nothing more then a political talking point, our nation’s top academics who study the pathology and psychology of terrorism in general and ISIS in particular agree that broad anti-Muslim suspicion and rhetoric is not only anti-American, it helps the terrorists.
Recent reports indicate that over 20,000 foreign fighters have joined militant Sunni organizations in the Iraq/Syria conflict. Most of them have joined the Islamic State (IS).
#3
As technology progresses and motives evolves the face of terrorism will continually change and adapt to the surrounding world
Bukhara, Imam. "True Meaning of Kufar - Muslimas' Oasis." Muslimas Oasis. N/A, 13 Oct. 2014. Web. 20 Mar. 2016.
Gilsinan, Kathy. "The Geography of Terrorism." The Atlantic. Atlantic Media Company, 18 Nov. 2014. Web. 20 Mar. 2016.
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