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Organelle Smear Campaign

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Q. Olivia Williams

on 10 November 2013

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Transcript of Organelle Smear Campaign

Organelle Smear Campaign
Lysosmes are subcellular organelles that are found in all eukaryotic cells and has the primary function of the cell’s digestion of macromolecules, old cell parts, and microorganisms.
Lysosomes consist of a wide variety of hydrolytic enzymes that break down macromolecules such as: nucleic acids, proteins, and polysaccharides.
Golgi Apparatus
The Golgi Apparatus (or body), was discovered in 1898 by Camillo Golgi. The Golgi Apparatus is responsible for the process and packaging proteins after their synthesis.
What happens if the Mitochondria malfunctions?
In general, if a person’s mitochondria completely fails, a person could possibly die of complications. In the cell, the mitochondria is the primary organelle that produces energy. Studies show that children with autism suffer from a mitochondrial defect. Children and people of older ages that have mitochondrial diseases experience: exercise intolerance, seizures, cognitive decline and many conditions.
Mitochondrial Diseases:
Alpers Disease
Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Syndrome (MDDS)
Leigh Syndrome
Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy

Cell Membrane
In a cell, the membrane provides structure and support. Although the cell membrane is a jelly-like substance, if this organelle were to become damaged, the organelles floating in the cell would swell because, the ability of the plasma membrane to control the passage of ions and water to the organelles and throughout the cell is disrupted. In addition, all of the cells contents would leak out and cause inflammation to surrounding tissues.
Vesicles are small, membrane-enclosed, sac-like organelles that come in a variety of shapes and sizes. These vesicles have the ability to transport substances from one organelle to another.
Vesicles contain peroxisomes that have enzymes that digest fatty acids and amino acids. These enzymes convert hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. The enzymes work in reactions to break down alcohol and other toxins.
Ribosomes are organelles that consist of RNA and proteins. Ribosomes are responsible for the making and assembling the proteins of the cell. Like any other organelle, if the ribosomes malfunction, this could lead to diseases and complications. There is an increasing number of diseases associated with the malfunction of a cell's ribosomes.
Diamond- Blackfan Anemia: this condition is where the person has a low red blood count.
Thrombocytopenia: this disease is an abnormally low count of thrombocytes.
Shwachman-Diamond Syndrome: children often get this disease and usually have neutropenia ( a low number of a specific type of white cells).
Dyskeratosis Congenita: this is an inhereted disease found in mostly males instead of females.

Associated Disease:
Cystic Fibrosis: Cystic fibrosis is a disease passed down through genes that leads to thick, sticky mucus building up in one's lungs, digestive tract, and other areas of the body. It is one of the most common chronic lung diseases in children and young adults, that is a life-threatening disorder. Cystic Fibrosis is caused by a mutation in a gene which changes the movement of salt in and out of cells.
Diseases and Illnesses:
Diseases due to vesicles ( and peroxisomes) are usually fatal.
Zellweger Spectrum: Reduction or absence of functional peroxisomes in the cells of an individual.
In animal cells, the Golgi Apparatus will break up and disappear during the process of mitosis or cellular division. Sometimes during telophase, the Golgi Apparatus will reappear. If the Golgi Apparatus malfunctioned, compounds wouldn't be able to be transported out of the cell.

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