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Grammar: Clauses and Compound/Complex Sentences
Transcript of Grammar: Clauses and Compound/Complex Sentences
Clause: a group of related words that has both a subject and a predicate
There are two main types of clauses:
Independent and Subordinate
Does not present a complete thought and cannot stand alone in a sentence. For example: "After Mike went home."
Presents a complete thought and can stand alone as a sentence.
For example: "Russell and I hiked."
Three types of dependent clauses:
To understand the types of clauses (independent and dependent, adverb, noun and adjective) and how to use them.
To know how to recognize and write compound, complex, compound-complex and simple sentences.
COMPLEX, COMPOUND, COMPLEX-COMPOUND AND SIMPLE SENTENCES
Complex sentence: A sentence that contains one independent clause and
one or more
When I get back to school
I'm actually going to appreciate it.
Compound sentence: A sentence that consists of
Within a compound sentence the clauses must be connected by a semi-colon, or by a comma and a coordinating conjunction.
I usually don’t mind missing school
this is not fun.
Complex-Compound sentence: A sentence that contains
independent clauses and
or more dependent clauses.
I have a bad flu
because I need to get well soon
I won't think about school just yet.
Now lets practice identifying simple, complex, compound, and complex-compound sentences!
Here's an example:
Used in the place of a noun
Ex. However, the teacher said
that the essay questions are based only on the last two chapters
Adverb clauses are used like an adverb to modify a verb, an adjective or an adverb.
If I study hard
, I will pass this test.
Also, all adverb clauses begin with a subordinating conjuntion.
Subordinating Conjunctions: Conjunctions that both connect and show the relationship between two clauses that are not equally important
Examples of Subordinating Conjunctions:
Used like an adjective to modify a noun or a pronoun
Ex. Tomorrow’s test,
which covers the entire book
, is half essay and half short answers.
Now lets practice identifying complex, compound, and complex-compound sentences!
Types of Adjective Clauses
Specifies or restricts a noun.
Begins with a relative pronoun like that or who.
Adds specific information about an already specific noun.
Begins with a relative pronoun like which or who.
A simple sentence is a sentence that consists of only one independent clause and
no dependent clause
A simple sentence must contain a subject and a predicate.
ran up the hill.
Jack and Jill
ran up the hill
Jack and Jill
ran and jumped up the hill
If you don't study
, you won't pass the quiz.
I asked if Sam,
a family friend
, was coming over.
he was going to buy apples at the store.
Identify the folowing:
Some students like to study in the mornings.
Alejandro played football
he went shopping for clothes.
The house which Abraham Lincoln was born in is still standing.
Alicia goes to the library and studies every day.
Juan and Maria went to the movies
after they finished studying.
- The suspect in the lineup who has red hair committed the crime.
- The suspect in the lineup, who owns a red car, committed the crime.
Subject: the part of clause that indicates who or what the clause is about.
Predicate: the part of a clause containing
a verb and expressing something about
Subordinate clauses often start with words like although, if, because, how, what, why, that, when, and since. They do not start with conjunctions.
A subordinate clause should not be confused with a phrase, which does not have a subject or a predicate.
After jumping in the freezing lake
, Sam immediately regretted it.
A clause that starts with a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS) or a conjunctive adverb can still be an independent clause.
He likes apples a lot
he also likes oranges
She ran to school
she got there too late
Sam liked to skateboard;
, Julia liked to dance.
Before I went outside for a long walk,
I put my jacket on