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Historical Sig

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by

Hilda Gallardo

on 19 January 2016

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Transcript of Historical Sig

Historical Sig
An ancient Greek or Roman would have been just as comfortable in Europe in 1700 because daily life was not much different – agriculture and technology were not much changed in
2000+ years
The Industrial Revolution changed human
life
drastically
More was created in the last
250+
years than in the previous 2500+ years of known
human
history
What was the Industrial Revolution?
• The Industrial Revolution was a fundamental change in the way goods were produced, from
human
labor to
machines
• The more efficient means of production and subsequent higher levels of production triggered far-reaching changes to industrialized societies

The Industrial Revolution
• Machines were invented which
replaced
human labor
• New
energy
sources were developed to power the new machinery – water, steam, electricity, oil (gas, kerosene)
-Some historians place advances in atomic, solar, and wind energy at the later stages of the Industrial Revolution
• Increased use of
metals
and minerals
-Aluminum, coal, copper, iron, etc.
• Transportation
improved
-Ships
• Wooden ships → Iron ships → Steel ships
• Wind-powered sails → Steam-powered boilers
-Trains
-Automobiles

Communication
improved
-Telegraph
-Telephone
-Radio

Developments
Mass
production
of goods, Increased
numbers
of goods, increased the
diversity
of goods produced.
Rural-to-urban migration: people left
farms
to work in
cities
.
Development and growth of new socio-economic classes
Working class,
bourgeoisie
, and wealthy industrial class

Dev. of Steam Engines

• Early
water
power involved mills built over fast-moving streams and rivers
• Early water power had problems
– Not
enough
rivers to provide the power needed to meet growing demand
– Rivers and streams might be
far removed
from raw materials, workers, and markets
– Rivers are prone to flooding and drying
- By 1800,
steam
engines were replacing water wheels as sources of power for factories
Coal production
doubled.
6million to
12 million tons

Before
the Industrial Revolution
• Canal barges pulled by
mules
• Ships powered by
sails
• Horse-drawn wagons, carts, and
carriages

After
the Industrial Revolution

Trains

Steamships
• Trolleys
• Automobiles

Robert Fulton invented the steamboat in
1807


Strong
, hard roads invented by Thomas Telford and John McAdam
 Improvement over
dirt
and gravel roads
 Macadamized roads have a smooth, hard surface that supports heavy loads without requiring a thick roadbed

Modern roads
are macadamized roads, with tar added to limit the creation of dust

 1830-1870 – railroad tracks
went from 49 miles to over
15,000 miles
 Steel rails replaced
iron
rails
 Greater train traveling comfort – heavier train cars, improved road beds, and sleeping cars

 Printing – 1800-1830
Iron printing press
Steam-driven press
 Rotary press – 1870
Invented by Richard Hoe
Printed both sides of a page at once

The Growth of Cities
• Causes of the Growth
-Improved transportation moved goods and people quickly and easily
-
Industrialization
- produced more goods cheaply by machine
-
Commercialization
- production of goods for a mass market. People demand goods.
-Farmers migrate to cities - Between 1880 and 1920, 11 million Americans left farms and went to the cities*. Why?
-New farm technology meant less
human labor

Full transcript