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Should We Legalize the Sale of Human Organs

2013 Englsih Reaserch Project. Should the sale of Human organs be lagalized?
by

Jamie Lykes II

on 24 November 2015

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Transcript of Should We Legalize the Sale of Human Organs

A man by the name of Walter Woods, who is forty-five, and now lives in Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, gave his brother his kidney. After the surgery Walter’s abdominal muscles ruptured, and he ended up losing his job because he could no longer lift heavy boxes.” Walter had to sell his house and came very close to bankruptcy. "I'm in constant pain from the surgeries I've had. I can't even move around in bed," said Wood.

Should We Legalize the
Sale of Human Organs?

In this Power-Point we will Discuss:
Organ Donation
Organ Transplantation Gone
Wrong
Shortage of Donors
Organ Donation
Organs Removed without Patient or Family Consent
Organ donation takes healthy organs and tissues from one person for transplantation into another. Experts say that the organs from one donor can save or help as many as 50 people.
Organs you
can donate
include:
Internal Organs:
Pancreas
Kidneys
Heart
Liver
Intestines
Lungs
Skin
Bone &Bone Marrow
Cornea
Most organ and tissue donations occur after the donor has died. But some organs and tissues can be donated while the donor is alive.
People of all ages and
background can be organ
donors. If you are
under age 18, your parent
or guardian must give you
permission to become a
donor.
If you are 18 or older you can
show you want to be a donor
by signing a donor card.
You should also let your family
know your wishes.
Without the donors organ being fully connected into the patient's body, there is no way to know if it's going to work or not. If the organ has had a long time from being harvested from the donor to going into the patient, the odds of it not working become higher. Also, the experience of your surgeon does influence whether an organ transplant works or not (however inexperienced surgeons are not allowed to operate without the guidance of a more experienced surgeon). Also, 'organ rejection' can cause transplants to fail. (But this does not equate to death of the patient - some rejection is treatable with drugs, the rest (whom drugs do not work for) require a re-transplant).
Eligibility
Organs that can be donated
Organ donation shortage reasons
One explanation for organ shortage is Americans’ general reluctance to become donors. There are various reasons why people might be uncomfortable with donating their organs. Some people just don’t even like talking about organ donation, because just honestly the thought of a person's death may make them uncomfortable. Some people don’t donate because it is against their religion and beliefs.
Religious Beliefs & Organ Donation
Catholics believe that if one donates their organs
that it shows a sign of charity and love. Gypsies
tend to be against organ donation. “Their
opposition is associated with their belief in the
afterlife. Gypsies believe that for one year after a
person dies, the soul retraces its
steps. All parts of the body must
remain intact because the soul
maintains a physical shape.
Pentecostals believe that it is an
individual's choice of whether they
want to donate their organs or not.

Organ Transplants

Gone wrong
Gone right
Illegal Organ Sales & Organ Trafficking
http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-204_162-567903.html
CBSNews
Organ Donor Story
Organ Donor Story
"I used the morphine pump for the first day. Then I didn't need it anymore," said Ellen Souviney, 48, of Brunswick, Maine, who gave a kidney to her personal trainer. "I didn't even need aspirin after that." said Ellen.
CBSNews
http://www.cbsnews.com/2100-204_162-567903.html
Viewpoints on Organ Selling
View-Points on Organ Donation
53% people say organ selling should be legal
47% say it shouldn't be legal.
Debate.Org
http://www.debate.org/opinions/should-the-sale-of-human-organs-belegal
One anonymous user on this survey said "I believe organs should be
legalized Even though crime rates would rise they would also fall shortly
after because the decline in demand for organs. Legalizing organ sales would
also decrease the waiting times for organs so a lot of peoples lives would be saved" another anonymous user opposing the comment said "Has humanity lost its humanity? The very idea of debating whether or not to legalize the sale of human organs is
offensive, repugnant, and insane! Has humanity lost its humanity? Have we become
carnivores where the strong, the powerful and the rich devour the weak, the poor
and helpless vulnerable? If we continue in this path, we shall devour ourselves
to extinction sooner than later."
Xenotransplantation
Organ Trafficking & Illegal Organ Selling (Black-Market)
Organ trafficking is a horrid crime that is spreading and spreading. There are three different broadcast of organ trafficking . Firstly, there are cases where traffickers force or deceive the victims into giving up an organ. Secondly, there are cases where victims formally or informally agree to sell an organ and are cheated because they are not paid for the organ or are paid less than the promised price. Thirdly, vulnerable persons are treated for an ailment, which may or may not exist and thereupon organs are removed without the victim's knowledge. Criminals running the organ trafficking business usually target more vulnerable people, poor, homeless, illiterate persons, migrant workers, and etc. Most of these people are often intimidated to sell their kidneys through unethical and unsafe procedures for a meager fee. The two most common trafficked organs are the kidney and the liver. Desperate patients purchase organs on the black market when they feel they can no longer afford to wait for an organ to be supplied through legal channels.
Prisoners Donating Organs
“What would it say about us as a society if we
permitted prisoners to offer up an organ?”
Prisoners that are put in jail for a lifetime, or are
supposed to be put to death, are then put under
extreme circumstances. If prisoners wanted to
donate their organs, would they be giving a truly
informed and uncoerced consent? Would their
extreme circumstances make them do something
they wouldn’t otherwise do if they were on the
outside?
Organs removed without patient or family consent
The Nation Health Society of the United Kingdom removed organs from dead
patients without their, or their families consent. These were patients who expressly stated
they did not want certain body parts taken after their death had their detail changed so their
records showed any of their organs could be removed. More than 21 families had to be contacted by
health officials to be told the disturbing news that tissue was mistakenly taken from their loved
ones. “Families of those involved face astonishing guilt as they would have given permission for
their loved ones' organs to be removed - based on wrong information about their final wishes.”
(Borland, Sophie 2010) The error occurred when information was being transferred from the Driving
and Vehicle Licensing Authority to the National Health Societies Blood and Transplant database.
How would you feel if you got a call that a very close family member has gotten their organs
taken without their consent?

Xenotransplanation
Scientist now believe that pigs may be the most suitable animal organ donors, because of
their similarity to humans in terms of both biology and size. But transplanting from pigs to people
does present a few problems. “The most critical is “hyperacute rejection,” an immune reaction
that causes organs from pigs to turn black and cease functioning within minutes of transplant
into humans.” (Torr, James 2009). The main thing getting in the way of animal-to-human
transplantation is the sugar enzyme in pigs organs which causes it to deteriorate faster, and could
cause it not to function properly. The idea is to use anti rejection drugs to keep the marrow cells
alive long enough for the human immune system to start thinking of the pigs cell as “self”
reducing the patient's dependence on very large doses of the powerful drugs after the
organ transplant.


Xenotransplantion Experiement
Researchers have been working on animal-to-human organ transplants called
xenotransplantation, since before 1984, when “Baby Fae” received a heart transplant from a
baby baboon. Stephanie Fae Beauclair, better known as Baby Fae, was an American infant born in
1984 with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. She became the first infant subject of a xenotransplant
procedure, receiving the heart of a baboon. “The historic surgery took place on October 26, 1984,
when Stephanie Fae received the heart of a baboon. She not only survived the surgery, but thrived
for more than two weeks.”(Loma Linda University) Then, for reasons that remain a mystery to this
day, she began to deteriorate. One by one, her essential organs shut down until, on November
16, 1984, she succumbed and passed away.

Conclusion
The question is, should we legalize the sell of human organs? Personally
my feelings about this are undecided. If human organ sell were legalized, it
could be very useful and helpful to many people in need of an organ. If I were
on death row, and I really had no relatives or close friends that could donate
me an organ, it would be a blessing to buy an organ from someone. On the
other hand, selling human organs can also be taken the wrong way. Criminals
will remain criminals. Some people could also take it to the extreme by selling
vital organs that they need, just to have money in their pockets, and not
treating their bodies as they should be treated. So in both ways,
legalizing the sell of human organs can be both good and bad.



By: Jamie Lykes II
Thank You !
Full transcript