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CHS 121 - Ch. 2

New Testament And Antiquities Textbook, Chapter 2 "The Historical Setting of the New Testament"
by

Marcus Stanfield

on 1 September 2015

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Transcript of CHS 121 - Ch. 2

Post-exilic period 539 BC - The second revolt AD 135
The Historical Setting of the NEW TESTAMENT
Temple destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar!!!
Complete destruction of their faith, culture and meaning
Utter Decimation
Psalm 137
Babylon - 596 B.C.
Cyrus the Great
Defeats Babylon 539 B.C.
How YOU might ask?
Used defeated people as allies
promise of restoration
Persia
Malachi 2
Separation from people around them
Complete distancing from culture around them
Pros?
Cons?
EZRA, Nehemiah, Ezekial, Haggai,
Zechariah and Malachi & the Temple
Lingua Franca
Synagogue
modern day church
Emergence of the Synagogue
What is Hellenism?
The proselytization of Greek culture
It was bringing people from archaic living to modernity
Who was thank for the advancement of Hellenism?
The Hellenistic Period 332 - 63 BC
ANOTHER CHANGE OF POWER
Political Goals?
DEFEAT the Powerful Persians
ADVANCE the Graeco-Roman culture
ADVANCE the Graeco-Roman religion
Alexander the Great of Macedonia
Theaters
Gymnasiums
Schools
Municiple government
Universal monetary currency
ONE LANGUAGE - uniting the entire Empire
Greek culture was the culture for nearly 900 years!
Contributions of Hellenism?
2 of Alexander's General's who assumed control of different parts of the empire
Ptolemy's and Sleucids
Remarkable freedom for Judea
Diaspora
Culture began to influence Judaism
antithetical to it's formations
Greatest threat to Judaism was the gradual assimilation of Hellenistic culture
Greek became the common language
Alexandria - 250 BC
Ptolemaic rule 320-198 BC (Egypt)
High persecution of Judaism
Antiochus presumed to be God and demanded worship
The last straw - PIGS!!!
Maccabean War
Maccabeus "Hammer"
Seleucid Rule 198-167 BC (Babylon)
The first Jewish Dynasty in Centuries
Theocracy -
Hasmonean Dynasty 141-63 BC
A system of government in which priests rule in the name of God or a god.
Theocracy:
3 major divisions:
Hellenized Jews
Hasmoneans
Hasidim
Not everyone was on the same page:
Rome!!!
Pompey
Freedom...sort of.
Hyrcanus II
Antipiter - The perfect candidate
Wealthy Idumean
Supported Hyrcanus
Understood local politics and customs
Idumean (southerner) not as likely to be nationalistic
Or Herod the PARANOID and SELF-ESTEEMLESS
HEROD, King of the Jews...YES that one!
37-4 BC
Refurbished walls
theaters
water system
racetrack
palace
Reconstruction of the TEMPLE!!! 20 B.C. - A.D. 63.
Greatest Contributions
The Revolts and MASADA
1 - 66-70 AD
Gessius Florus
AD 70 - END OF TEMPLE!
960 Defenders at MASADA
1,400 Ft.
Double Wall
110 Defensive towers
Cisterns - 1.4 mil Cu. Ft.
2 - 132-135 AD
HADRIAN
Simon Bar Kokhba

Simon - Judas and Jonathan had died, and so Simon named high priest.
Full transcript