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Education of Gifted and Talented Students

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Daniel Hernandez-Torrano

on 3 March 2014

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Transcript of Education of Gifted and Talented Students

EDUCATION OF GIFTED AND TALENTED STUDENTS
What is this thing called giftedness??
CHARACTERISTICS OF GIFTED STUDENTS
Gifted Education and Gifted Programs
Rationale for gifted education:
Teaching Strategies for Gifted Learners
Giftedness is a social construct
The concepts of normal, subnormal, and supernormal (or gifted) are human inventions, not fact of nature.

Giftdness is not the same as high IQ

Giftedness within a talent development model
First formal definition of giftedness
National Association for Gifted Children
Gifted individuals are those who demonstrate outstanding levels of aptitude (defined as an exceptional ability to learn) or competence (documented performance or achievement in top 10% or rarer) in one or more domains. Domains include any structured area of activity with its own symbol system (e.g., mathematics, music, language) and/or set of sensoriomotor skills (e.g., painting, dance, sports) (NAGC, 2013)
Some definitions of giftedness
The Three-Ring Conception of Giftedness
Gifted behavior occurs when there is an interaction among three basic clusters of human traits: above average general and/or specific abilities, high levels of task commitment (motivation), and high levels of creativity. Gifted and talented children are those who possess or are capable of developing this composite of traits and applying them to any potentially valuable area of human performance (Renzulli, 1978).
The Differentiated Model of Giftedness and Talent
Clear distinction between giftedness and talent.

GIFTEDNESS: Possession and use of untrained and spontaneously expressed natural abilities (called aptitudes or gifts) in at least one ability domain at the top 10% of his or her age peers.

TALENT: Superior mastery of systematically developed abilities (or skills) and knowledge in at least one field of human activity within the upper 10% of age-peers in that field or fields.
Gifted as the top 1 percent level in general intellectual ability as measured by the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale or a comparable instrument (Terman, 1926)
10 Common Characteristics and Attributes of Gifted Students
Motivation
Evidence of desire to learn
Demonstrates persistence in pursuing or completing self- selected tasks (may be culturally influenced); evident in school or non- school activities. Enthusiastic learner; has aspirations to be somebody, to do something.
Interests
Intense, sometimes unusual, interests
Unusual or advanced interests in a topic or activity; self-starter; pursues an activity unceasingly beyond the group.
Memory
Unusual ability to remember and recall information
Already knows; 1-2 repetitions for mastery; has a wealth of information about school and non-school topics; pays attention to details; manipulates information.
Inquiry
Questions, experiments, exploration
Asks unusual questions for age: plays around with ideas; extensive exploratory behaviors directed toward eliciting information about materials, devices, or situations.
Quickly grasps new concepts and meanings
Exceptional ability to draw inferences; appears to be a good guesser; is keenly observant; heightened capacity for seeing unusual and diverse relationships, integration of ideas and disciplines.
Reasoning
Local approaches for figuring out solutions
Ability to make generalizations and use metaphors and analogies; can think things through in a logical manner; critical thinker; ability to think things through and come up with a plausible answer.
Problem solving ability
Effective strategies for recognizing and solving problem
Unusual ability to devise or adopt a systematic strategy to solve problems and to change the strategy if it is not working; creates new design; inventor.
Communication Skills
Highly expressive with words, numbers, or symbols
Unusual ability to communicate (verbally, nonverbally, physically, artistically, symbolically); uses particularly apt examples, illustrations, or elaborations.
Produce many ideas, highly original
Shows exceptional ability in using everyday materials; is keenly observant; has wild, seemingly silly ideas; fluent, flexible producer of ideas; highly curious.
Conveys and picks up on humor well
Keen sense of humor that may be gentle or hostile; large accumulation of information about emotions; capacity for seeing unusual; uncommon emotional depth; openness to experiences; sensory awareness.
Humor
Insight
Creativity
Some Differential Characteristics of Gifted Students
Identifying gifted and talented students
Objective-type instruments
Performance assessments
Rating scales and interviews
Selected-response assessment from standarized, nationally normed paper-and-pencil or computerized test to locally developed and normed tests.

IQ tests, aptitude and achievement tests...
Examples:
- Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)
- Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT)
- Differential Aptitude Test (DAT)
- Torrance Test for Creative Thinking (TTCT)
Performance assessment, authentic assessment, or portfolios. Measure of the domain-specific construct of interest.
Examples:
- Present arguments for or against on issue.
- Write a report of scientific observation.
- Portfolio: Students present their "best pieces" highlighting the strenghts of each piece or a work in progress.
Classroom observations of students' behaviors collected by the use of rating scales and interviews with students.
Examples:
- Gifted Rating Scales
- Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students
There are two generally accepted purposes for providing special education for gifted students:
First purpose
Second purpose
The first purpose is to provide young people with opportunities for maximum cognitive growth and self-actualization through the development and expression of one or a combination of performance areas where superior potential may be present. All of the students in a classroom deserve to be challenged and assisted on their intellectual journeys, not just those who score most poorly on standardized tests. Overlooking the needs of gifted students is wrong and will lead to gifted students becoming bored, losing interest in learning, and learning to under achieve as well.
The second purpose is to increase society's reservoir of persons who will help to solve the problems of contemporary civilization by becoming producers of knowledge and art rather than mere consumers of existing information. Gifted students are those who are most likely to make a great impact on the world. They may be the ones who will find cures for diseases, lead their countries, and change the course of history. By holding them back from learning all that they can, we may be sacrificing our brightest students, and thereby those who hold the key to future world change.
Enrichment
Extension activities
Many textbooks and teachers' guides provide follow-up or extension activities as time allows. When gifted students finish early, these may be suitable ways for them to get the challenge and depth of understanding they require. Open-ended, real-world problems are excellent ways to extend students’ learning.
Independent study
In an independent study, the student selects a topic of interest in any academic area where he shows strength. The student and teacher work out parameters for process (how much time each day, where research will take place, what materials will be needed, what other persons will be involved, etc.) and product (how will the student demonstrate what was learned, will the product be shared, will it serve a real—life purpose, etc.) The independent study suits students who have task commitment and who tend to finish regular work quickly and correctly.
Mentorship
A student with heightened knowledge in a specific academic area may benefit from contact with a specialist in this field. This is particularly the case in lower grades when the teacher cannot keep up with the student’s capacity to learn the subject. A mentor may be a teacher of a higher grade, a community member, an older student or an instructor at a local community college or university. Mentorships vary in frequency of visits and may even take place online.
Enrichment clusters
If there is a small group of students in the school with similar interests and aptitudes, they may be brought together for a set period of time each week to pursue a topic of study under the guidance of a teacher or mentor. The topic may change frequently or develop into a long-term exploration, but it should be open-ended and have real-world application. Enrichment clusters may be worked into the schedule of a committed teacher as contact time.
Pull-out programs
Gifted students are pulled out of a heterogeneous classroom to spend a portion of their time in a gifted class. These programs vary widely, from carefully designed half-day academic programs to a single hour each week of educational challenges. The majority of pull-out programs include an assortment of critical thinking drills, creative exercises, and subjects typically not introduced in standard curricula.
Teaching Strategies for Gifted Learners
Acceleration
Whole-grade acceleration
Whole-grade acceleration is the practice of placing a student in the next grade without having completed the previous one. This practice requires the consideration of several factors, including testing results, school and academic factors, developmental factors, interpersonal skills and attitude and support. If the child is not physically placed in a class of a higher grade, a full IPP may be developed and followed so that her needs are being met in her present classroom.
Subject acceleration
Subject acceleration is suited to the student who is gifted in one or two subject areas, such as the child who excels in math but has average literacy skills. The gifted student may also join a higher grade class for part of the day. This is generally easier to implement in elementary schools than junior high. Occasionally, subject acceleration may require a student having contact with a mentor teacher.
Curriculum compacting
Another approach to subject acceleration is through pretesting and compacting the curriculum to what the student does not yet know. Through compacting or telescoping, the student can earn time to pursue topics of interest or proceed to a higher level more quickly.
Enrichment means that the student is working on a topic in more depth than others. The student keeps pace with the rest of his/her classmates but has more time to explore topics of interest.
Acceleration means that the student is advancing in a subject more quickly than others. He/she may complete the year's work in less time or move to a higher level earlier, with support to fill in any gaps.
Myths on Giftedness
2. Teachers challenge all the students, so gifted kids will be fine in the regular classroom
3. Gifted students make everyone else in the class smarter by providing a role model or a challenge
6. Gifted education programs are elitist
7. That student can’t be gifted; he’s receiving poor grades
9. This child can’t be gifted, he has a disability
10. Our district has a gifted and talented program: We have AP courses
11. Gifted education requires an abundance of resources
4. All children are gifted
5. Acceleration placement options are socially harmful for gifted students
8. Gifted students are happy, popular, and well-adjusted in school
1. Gifted students don’t need help; they’ll do fine on their own
Affective
Large accumulation of information about emotions
Unusual sensitivity to the feelings of others
Keen sense of humor
Heightened self-awareness, feelings of being different
Idealism and sense of justice
Inner locus of control
Unusual emotional depth and intensity
High expectations of self/others
Perfectionism
Strong need for consistency between values/actions’
Advanced levels of moral judgment.
Intuitive
Early involvement and concern for intuitive knowing
Open to intuitive experiences
Creativity apparent in all areas of endeavor
Ability to predict
Interest in future.
Social
Strongly motivated by self-actualization needs
Advanced capacity for conceptualizing and solving societal, problems
Leadership
Involvement with the meta-needs of society (i.e., justice, truth, beauty).
Guess who...
This person was four years old before he could speak and seven before he could read. His teacher labeled him “slow” and “mentally handicapped”...
This man was fired by a newspaper editor because he lacked imagination and had no good ideas...
Twelve publishers rejected her book before a small London shop decided to publish it...
His teacher told him he was “too stupid to learn anything”. If modern psychology had existed back then, he would have probably been deemed a victim of ADHD...
Dyslexic, he left school he was 15. He couldn't always follow what was going on and became distracted easily. His teachers thought he was just lazy.
Cognitive
Retention of large quantities of information
Advanced comprehension
Varied interests and high curiosity
High level of language development and verbal ability
Unusual capacity for processing information
Flexible thought processes
Accelerated pace of thought processes
Comprehensive synthesis of ideas
Early ability to delay closure
Ability to see unusual relationships
Ability to generate original ideas and solutions
Capacity to integrate ideas and disciplines
Early differential patterns for thought processing;
Early ability to use and form conceptual frameworks
Affective
Large accumulation of information about emotions
Unusual sensitivity to the feelings of others
Keen sense of humor
Heightened self-awareness, feelings of being different
Idealism and sense of justice; Inner locus of control
Unusual emotional depth and intensity
High expectations of self/others
Perfectionism
Strong need for consistency between values/actions
Advanced levels of moral judgment.
Physical
Heightened sensory awareness
Unusual discrepancy between physical and intellectual development
Low tolerance for lag between their standards and their athletic skills
Intuitive
Early involvement and concern for intuitive knowing
Open to intuitive experiences
Creativity apparent in all areas of endeavor
Ability to predict
Interest in future.
Social
Strongly motivated by self-actualization needs
Advanced capacity for conceptualizing and solving societal, problems
Leadership
Involvement with the meta-needs of society (i.e., justice, truth, beauty).
Daniel Hernandez-Torrano, PhD
Nazarbayev University
Graduate School of Education
July, 2013

...Today, Albert Einstein is recognized as one of the most important physicians of the history. Einstein has published more than 300 scientific papers along with over 150 non-scientific works and his ideas continue to have effect even today. He received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Albert Einstein
Thomas Edison has been one of the most prolific inventors of all times, with 1084 US patents including the electric power, lighting, batteries, phonograph, cement, telegraphy, among many others.
Thomas Edison
JK Rowling is the creator of the Harry Potter saga. In 2004, Forbes named JK Rowling as the first person to become a U.S.-dollar billionaire by writing books.
JK Rowling
Today, Richard Branson is founder and chairman of Virgin Group with more than 400 companies. Branson is the 4th richest citizen of the United Kingdom, with an estimated net worth of USD 4.6 billion.
Richard Branson
Later on, Walt Disney become an animator, film producer, director, screenwriter, voice actor, entrepreneur, entertainer, and philanthropist, as well as one of the most influential persons in the field of entertainment during the 20th century.
Walt Disney
daniel.torrano@nu.edu.kz
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