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Identity and Personal Development
Transcript of Identity and Personal Development
S. Freud: Psychosexual Development
E. Erikson: Psychosocial Development
Identity and Image
I + Me = Myself
Social Identity = Image?
- situations/rituals, not people
- created by (expectations) of society
- constructs reality/identity (unlike acting)
+ determined in advance
+ set of behaviour (patterns)
+ "part" (of a larger entity)
+ more can be played (at once)
- actor stops acting
- s.roles are funduments of individuals reality (not a mask to conceal reality)
Why do we play/stick to s. roles?
they become "part of us" (internalization)
because of sanctions
positive and negative
set by the society (to check and control whether we stick to its norms and rules)
determine the importance of the role
Self-Conscious - What does it mean?
by breastfeading/weaning infant (defined by id) learns:
1. it is different from environment ("body image"/personal limits) = (start of) INDEPENDENCE
2. gratification/food can come immediate or late = TRUST and/or disappointment
too much gratification
CAN result in
immature personality, returning to dependence upon others to be satisfied
and CAN show in
passive continual oral stimulus, like biting/chewing objects (gums, pencils, nails etc.)
too little gratification
CAN result in
passive, naive personality,
learning that own engagement does not produce gratification
and CAN show in
active continual oral stimulus, like eating a lot, "telling in" or sarcasm (= oral sadism), smoking, oral sexual practices
When and where to go to toilet ("toilet training") - a conflict between Id (child) and Ego (controlled by parents)
too little toilet training ("anal expulsive")
CAN lead to
who CAN be
reckless (inconsiderate of others feelings), careless, stubborn, rebellious, disorganized, share things with their peers and give things away, coprophiliac...
too much toilet training ("anal retentive")
CAN lead to
who CAN be
obsessively organized or excessively neat, punctual, respectful to authority, very careful over their money...
Bowel and Bladder
Oedipus complex: The boy focuses his libido (sexual desire) upon his mother, and focuses jealousy and emotional rivalry against his father — because it is he who sleeps with mother. To facilitate uniting him with his mother, the boy's id wants to kill father (as did Oedipus), but the ego, pragmatically based upon the reality principle, knows that the father is the stronger of the two males competing to possess the one female. Nevertheless, the boy remains ambivalent about his father's place in the family, which is manifested as fear of castration by the physically greater father; the fear is an irrational, subconscious manifestation of the infantile Id.
Electra complex (of girls): Whereas boys develop castration anxiety, girls develop penis envy that is rooted in anatomic fact: without a penis, she cannot sexually possess mother, as the infantile id demands. Resultantly, the girl redirects her desire for sexual union upon father; thus, she progresses towards heterosexual femininity that culminates in bearing a child who replaces the absent penis.
Men (who compete with everybody because of castration fear/anxiety)
CAN be aggressive, over-ambitious, vain persons.
Women (who desire to dominate others - esp. men - because of penis envy)
CAN be unusually seductive (high self-esteem) or submissive (low self-esteem) .
Id (desire) - Ego (reality) conflict (at this stage)
of the id/desire (to prevent anxiety/fear)
and resolves in
with the same sex parent:
boys don't fear castration/fathers anger (in competition for mother) any more,
girls don't envy mother (for being fathers woman) any more
By this the Super-ego is formed/internalized
= it is better to comply to social roles/rules than being punished for "acting out"/id.
Repressed sexual feelings
Basic information (description):
"Relatively stable period... Starts when Oedipus complex begins to dissolve", i.e. child
realizes it cannot fulfill desires for the parent of opposite sex and
identifies with the parent of the same sex
so sexual energy or ________ turns from parent of the __________ sex to peers of _______ sex, from solving Oedipus conflict (i.e. identifying with the parent of _____ sex) to development of the self/own identity. This means that super-ego starts to develop respectively it is becoming more and more apparent, structured, organized (i.e. child understands values, norms, rules etc.)
Not really a phase but period between phases (from 3-7 to 10-15 years old)
Additional information (explanation):
Id is repressed (i.e. sexual drives are latent/hidden), so ego is ruled by
Because of latency (of sexual drives) gratification of sexual desire is delayed (unlike during the preceding three stages it has to be transformed/understood from manifest/shown actions), i.e. the child must derive the pleasure of gratification from secondary process-thinking that directs the libidinal drives towards external activities, such as schooling, friendships, hobbies, etc.
Sublimation is LIKE pushing "things"/desires/feelings into unconscious. But not into Id (=
) but into super-ego. Because of sublimation of desires we are able to act "socially acceptable" (if we only repress desires - or use other
like repression - we are becoming "mentally ill"/frustrated/neurotic etc.) Sublimation is inhibited and shown in exchanging sexually "acting out" for (creative) actions ruled by super ego (e.g. faith/celibate, art/poetry, work/surgeon etc.)
Fixation is result either of the Oedipus conflict or of the Ego's failure to direct his or her energies towards socially acceptable activities. It is shown in (persons that are/like/do) ...?
Is there a fixation in this stage?
If not, why not?
If yes, when (and how) does it occur and how does it show?
Criticism of Freud's PSD (and PA/method in general):
scientific: mere (pre)interpretation, intrusion of thoughts ("Little Hans case")
feminist (Karen Horney): "power envy" instead of "penis envy" and "womb and vagina envy" as addition (to Oedipus complex)
anthropological (Bronislaw Malinovski): power and fear (of uncles) instead of "sexual jealousy" (of fathers) is source of Oedipus complex (in non-Western cultures)
Stages cannot be exchanges or skipped
At every stage the individuum faces a
Conflicts are never fully solved, they remain lifelong, BUT
It helps to solve the conflicts as much as possible
"I am what you give me"
Mother (first relation) represents the world
Trutfullness of others and own thrustworthiness
"Misuse" results in the
feeling of inability to influence "the world" and instead be dependent of its "flow", anxiety of beeing left alone, lack of confidence
4 Stages of Crises:
Fight or Give-In
Despair (if Give-In)
"I am whom I want"
Parents restrict (more or less)
Development of relationship between love & hate, readiness & stubborness, self-expression & repression
Restriction results in
feelings of shame over own goals/desires and abilities
"I am what I can imagine to be"
Family (friends) give new restrictions/information -> development of (new) values
Fixation: Self-restrictions (of feelings, desires etc.) vs. "permanent-stress" (too much workload/responsibility, guilt-complex etc.)
"I am what I learn"
Industry/Competency = desire to do good and well, not just play "as if I/it were"
Expectations (of the child itself or its environment/parents):
too high -> failure -> failure-panic, avoiding new tasks etc.
too low -> inferiority (= unworthy of the adults/peers world) -> workaholic (to get gratification/respect)
"I am whom I am"
= whom I have become (past & present) and my role in the society/what am I going to be (future);
(personal, political, religious etc.) and
"Identity crisis" is best met in "psychosocial moratorium" (= having enough time and space to explore and experiment with own ID)
Is there ability to integrate into society as oneself?
Yes. -> (stable) ID -> fidelity;
No. -> group-identity -> restlessness, permanent puberty, premature enthusiasm
"I am what makes me loveable"
"With ID" long-term (reciprocal) commitments (e.g. marriage, solidarity/friendship) are possible bcs compromise, sacrifice etc. doesn't hurt (the Ego/Id)
"Without ID/self-consciousness" rejection hurts (the Ego/Id) therefore no "investment" into relationships/intimacy.
Isolation = self- or partner-centered, self-sacrifice
Today: intimacy faces career, mobility, urban life
"I am what I am ready to pass on"
Generativity = concern to guide future generation (e.g. rise own children) and perform social-benefits/-work
Stagnation (feeling lack of own productivity/creativity -
) --> taking care of oneself, no friends
Too much generativity -> self-denial for benefit of others
"I am what I have become"
This phase can appear also when knowing ones life is ending (terminal disease diagnosis)
Integrity = facing death without fear/despair but still see both luck and mistakes in ones life -> wisdom/contemplation
Despair = no reflection over death and aging -> repulsion over other lifes, death-panic, depression, hopelessness
J. Piaget: Cognitive Development
is at the center of human organism
Language derives from CD
Three types of knowledge:
physical/empirical (about objects in the world) is given and can be gained through perception
logical-mathematical/abstract must be invented/learned (fundamentally different from enabling physical knowledge)
social is culture-specific and can be learned only from other people within one's cultural group.
Assimilation (AS) and Accommodation (ACC)
identity (and brain) is
equilibrium, t.m. (finding peace in) constant balancing
, between internal and external , between AS & ACC
Figurative and operative intelligence
World is made of
states and transformations
active/dynamic: all actions, overt or covert, undertaken in order to follow, recover, or anticipate the
(more or less) static: all means of representation used to retain in mind the
states (i.e., successive forms, shapes, or locations)
that intervene between transformations. It involves perception, imitation, mental imagery, drawing, and language.
are changes in
shape or form (for instance, liquids are reshaped as they are transferred from one vessel to another, humans change in their characteristics as they grow older),
size (e.g., a series of coins on a table might be placed close to each other or far apart)
placement or location in space and time (e.g., various objects or persons might be found at one place at one time and at a different place at another time).
mind/intelligence must represent/follow the world
fitting new information into pre-existing/learned cognitive schemata (in order to understand new)
altering pre-existing schemas in order to fit in the new information
e.g. to recognize (assimilate) an apple as an apple one needs first to focus (accommodate) on the contour of this object. To do this one needs to roughly recognize (assimilate) the size/colour of the object.
Development increases the balance/equilibration between AS & ACC:
when in balance --> mental schemas of the operative intelligence
when one function dominates over the other --> representations which belong to figurative intelligence.
symbolic (animism, artificialism, transductive reasoning,
ego centrism (three mountain problem ))
intuitive (centration, conservation,
irreversibility, class inclusion, transitive inference)
able to use inductive, but not deductive logic
concrete maths (5 is IIIII) - works for + and -
decentering/seration, reversibility, conservation,
classification, elimination of egocentrism
abstract problem-solving (not T-E)
L. Kohlberg: Moral Development
Piaget: Moral follows cognitive development
Moral is principally concerned with justice and develops throughout lifetime
Stage one (obedience): Heinz should not steal the medicine because he will consequently be put in prison which will mean he is a bad person.
Or: Heinz should steal the medicine because it is only worth 1/10 and not how much the druggist wanted for it; Heinz had even offered to pay for it and was not stealing anything else.
Stage two (self-interest): Heinz should steal the medicine because he will be much happier if he saves his wife, even if he will have to serve a prison sentence.
Or: Heinz should not steal the medicine because prison is an awful place, and he would more likely languish in a jail cell than over his wife's death.
Stage three (conformity): Heinz should steal the medicine because his wife expects it; he wants to be a good husband.
Or: Heinz should not steal the drug because stealing is bad and he is not a criminal; he has tried to do everything he can without breaking the law, you cannot blame him.
Stage four (law-and-order): Heinz should not steal the medicine because the law prohibits stealing, making it illegal.
Or: Heinz should steal the drug for his wife but also take the prescribed punishment for the crime as well as paying the druggist what he is owed. Criminals cannot just run around without regard for the law; actions have consequences.
Stage five (human rights): Heinz should steal the medicine because everyone has a right to choose life, regardless of the law.
Or: Heinz should not steal the medicine because the scientist has a right to fair compensation. Even if his wife is sick, it does not make his actions right.
Stage six (universal human ethics): Heinz should steal the medicine, because saving a human life is a more fundamental value than the property rights of another person.
Or: Heinz should not steal the medicine, because others may need the medicine just as badly, and their lives are equally significant.
ego-centric (others used for own benefit), disqualifying social norms, "moral is relative"
sticking to social rules/roles without reflection, disqualifying fairness -->
if it is not legal, it is not moral (morality lies outside the person)
individual is different from society and its judgment/principles can precede society's; outside rules are useful but changeable mechanisms
C.G. Jung: Self
A = conscious part of the individual
Ego = whom I think I am (without getting to know my unconscious/B part) and therefore behave according to this "assumptions" (inclusively reactions caused by fears/complexes etc.)
(dreams/unconscious analyzed through "free associations" by the patient)
(dreams analyzed very systematically/into depth by the therapist)
Self = whom I am (after getting to know/accommodate my unconscious/B part)
B = unconscious part; consisting of:
shadow (personal unconscious): the other ("dark") side of me/ego which is driven by complexes/fixations and repressed experiences (see Freud); its expression in dreams can be interpreted by the patient (by "free associations")
anima (and animus): the "woman in man" ("man in woman") that compensates the ego; naturally it is negative but can be turned into positive by therapy (the same as shadow)
archetypes (collective unconscious): the heritage of human kind/"soul", collective symbols and myths that appear in dreams and can be interpreted (only) by an expert/therapist