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Copy of Korean Ancient Civilization

World Civ Class
by

Kim Wesley Bautista

on 18 January 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Korean Ancient Civilization

Ancient Korean Civilization Begins 2333 B.C. The history of human activity in Korea can be traced far into the Paleolithic period, about 500,000 years ago. However, the beginning of Korean history is often dated to 2333 B.C. when King Tan-gun, a legendary figure, established the first kingdom named Choson, meaning the "Land of the Morning Calm." Ancient Korea was characterized by clan communities, which combined to form small town-states. They rose and fell and by the first century B.C., Three Kingdoms, Goguryeo, Chosen, and Silla had emerged on the Korean Peninsula (present day Manchuria). Three Kingdoms 57 B.C.- 668 C.E. Silla Kingdom Period 668-935 C.E. Goguryeo Kingdom Period 918-1392 C.E. Chosen Kingdom Period 1392-1910 C.E. Ancient Korean Civilization Ever since Silla unified the peninsula in 668 C.E., Korea was ruled by a one-man dictatorship, known as a authoritarian socialist government. It has maintained its political independence and ethnic identity (culture) in spite of frequent foreign invasions. Despite invasions by Japan and Manchu in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, Choson continued for more than five centuries until 1910, when Japan colonized the nation for three and a half decades. The legendary beginning date (2333 B.C.) of the Korean people is said to be when Tan'gun established the kingdom of Choson. In order to distinguish it from the later Choson Dynasty, it is now referred to as Ko ("Old") Choson. In the legend, Tan'gun was born of a divine father, Hwan-ung, a son of the heavenly king, and a woman who had been transformed from a bear. The bear and a tiger had pleaded with Hwan-ung to transform them into human beings. Only the bear achieved the transformation by following Hwanung's instructions, which included the task of avoiding sunlight and eating a bunch of mugwort and twenty peices of garlic for one hundred days. This bear transformed the woman, then married Hwan-ung and their offspring was Tan'gun. The Silla Kingdom period marked the start of Korea's cultural development. Buddhism expanded and started the construction of many temples and art works. However, despite Chinese influences, Silla remained largely tribal in culture. Society divided into distinct classes with a large semi-slave population. Warlords became very powerful in the north and eventually took over Silla and founded a new kingdom, Goguryeo. In 598 C.E. the first of a series of major Sui Dynasty attacks in the Goguryeo-Sui Wars took place. In 612 C.E. Gogurqeo repulses a second Sui invasion at the Salsu. These wars ended in 614 C.E. with a costly defeat for Sui. The Ancient Choson expanded possibly due to better agriculture and population growth. By uniting all Three Kingdoms, Silla incorporated Goguryeo’s military skills to design and build temples. Also, Silla was able to maintain conections with Tang China, benefiting them from the trade routes and cultural exchanges passing through China, along the Silk Road. The people of Silla understood that to accept too much from Tang China would eventually make them a province of China. Little is known about the armies of Ancient Choson except that they were standing armies. Evidence of horses and chariots was not common, so it is likely only the richest warriors could afford them. Bronze spear points and arrowheads from the early days of the Ancient Choson indiacate that there was an army of spearmen and archers, including the use of cross bows. Also, bronze daggers and spears of unique styles, iron daggers, and iron spear points have been found. Short daggers were used by young children to attack close targets. Three Kingdoms Period Map Map of Korea Bibliography Traditional houses included thatched roofs for the low class and rural areas, while clay-tile roofs symbolized upper class and urban areas. Under-floor heating systems known as "ondol" were made by putting mud over under-floor heating stones, which was a main feature of traditional Korean houses.
The traditional houses of yangban families were divided by walls into women's quarters , men's quarters, and servants' quarters. Relating the rules of gender segregation and status discrimination between the yangban and their servants in the social hierarchy of the Choson Dynasty. Western architecture was introduced in the nineteenth century. From 1592 C.E. to 1598 C.E., the Japanese military ruler, Hideyoshi Toyotomi, leads invasions of Korea but retreats both times. Bunhwanges (634 C.E.) Pictures: Websites/Books: http://letsrokandroll.blogspot.com/2011/02/three-kingdoms-period-silla.html http://www.kidspast.com/images/korea-three-kingdom.jpg http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/korean_peninsula.gif http://koreajjang.files.wordpress.com/2010/05/600pxthree_kingdoms_of_korea_map.png Asianinfo Co. "Korea's History/Background." Asianinfo. 2010. Web. 21 Feb. 2012. <http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/korea/pro-history.htm>. Cumings, Bruce. Korea's Place in the Sun: A Modern History, 1997. Hanstern, Lee. "Korean Recipe." Korean History. Asian Recipe Co, 2000. Web. 21 Feb. 2012.<http://asiarecipe.com/korhistory.html>. Saccone, Richard. Koreans to Remember: Fifty Famous People Who Helped Shape Korea, 1993. Whitefeild, Roderick, ed. Treasures from Korea: Art thruogh 5,000 Years, 1984. Yang, Sung Chul. The North and South Korean Political Systems: A Comparative Analysis, 1994. Royal Tombs of the Goguryeo Kingdom History The Legend Government Formation of Three Kingdoms Cultural Development Benefits of Uniting Housing War Japanese Invasion Ko Chosen Kingdom Expansion Japan Colinization Military Weapons Cross Bow Swords Dagger Tan'gun Legend http://premodernkoreantechnology.blogspot.com/2011_12_01_archive.html http://www.hwarangdo.com/hrd1.htm Battling Soldiers Thatched Roof House Clay-tile House http://park.org/Korea/Pavilions/PublicPavilions/KoreaImage/e-information/life/tradi-03.html Food The basic everyday meal may have consisted of a bowl of steamed white rice, a soybean-paste vegetable soup, and a dish of kimch'I. Steamed or seasoned vegetables, fish, meats, and other foods were added as side dishes. Many people ate at a low table while sitting on the ondol floor, using a spoon and chopsticks.
The Three Kingdoms of Silla, Goguryeo, and Choson had similar ethnic backgrounds. Goguryeo occupied the northern part of the peninsula from the Chinese border to the Han River, while Silla and Choson dominated the southern regions. All three kingdoms were heavily influenced by China, and Buddhism was introduced to Goguryeo in 372 C.E.. Various alliances were formed either with or against the Chinese until 660 C.E. when Silla allied with China to overthrow Choson. Goguryeo fell shortly afterwards in 668 C.E.. The Choson period is divided into the Tan'gun, Kija, and Wiman periods. Shortly after the fall of Wiman Choson in 108 B.C.E. and the establishment of Chinese military control, the Three Kingdom periods began. In 668, Silla unified the Three Kingdoms. Silla's decline in the late ninth century brought about the rise of Later Chosen and Later Goguryeo. Wang Kon, who established the Goguryeo Dynasty, eventually reunified the nation. Series of Mongol invasions that began in 1231 C.E., devastated the country in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. General Yi Song-gye overthrew Goguryeo and established the Choson Dynasty in 1392 C.E.. Fall of Goguryeo Kingdom Influence of China Buddhism Korean Buddhism has both religious rules and meditative traditions. Buddhists believe that human suffering is caused mainly by desire. Therefore, some Buddhists try to obtain enlightenment by developing an attitude of detachment, while others try to fulfill their desires by offering prayers of requests. There was a wide range of religious beliefs, from shamanism, Confucianism, and Buddhism to Christianity, as well as Islam and other religions. Indigenous folk beliefs and shamanism evolved together, sharing a fundamental belief in the existence of a wide range of gods, for example mountain gods, house gods, and fire god and spirits of the dead, which may influence people's fortunes. Religion Men and women were equal. Daughters were listed with sons in the order of their birth. Inherited property was divided equally among sons and daughters. Women held rights to property and could give or receive property in the same way as men. Sons and daughters shared responsibility for the ceremonies and both held land to support them. Female lines were as important as male lines. Also, remarriage was not unusual. Equal Roles Buddhist tablet Buddhist Temple http://ancientweb.org/explore/country/Korea Influence of Buddhism and China Korean Alphabet http://asiasociety.org/files/korean.png Ko Choson Around 3000 B.C. early Korean civilization grew with waves of settlers from central Asia.Immigrants from eastern China brought new rice-growing techniques around 700 B.C. Early Civilization Koreans value their native alphabet, called han'gul , which was invented in the mid-fifteenth century. Alphabet Rice Farming http://www.greenpeace.org/eastasia/news/blog/how-ancient-chinese-farmers-had-it-right-all-/blog/38534/ Timeline The Japanese turned Korea into a colony to supply Japan with food. However they also built bridges, railways, roads, and factories in Korea causing rapid urban population growth. Korea remained mostly agricultural. When Korean's took part in peaceful demonstrations for independence in 1919 C.E., the Japanese arrested and executed thousands of people. Afterwards they made some minor reforms and then tried to force Japanese names, religion, and language on them. Fortunately Japanese control ended in 1945 after WWII when they surrendered to the allies. Japan Colinization The End www.youtube.com/watch?v=dRWGn2IO6_A
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