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Transcript of Time Line
The scientific theory explores the concept that since the seas were significantly different in depth around the coast of Australia, the Continent was extended by approximately 100-200 kilometers, therefore making other countries a lot more accessible then today. They believe by using rafts, Aboriginals travelled down from the north and other varies countries to seek land.
The creation story is a religious Aboriginal believe, which is altered between tribes. They usually exploring the concept of
some assorted God. Between each tribe the story varies, therefore over all of Australia there is thousands of variations.
The scientific theory
The creation theory
These are names of the two theories of how Aboriginals came to live in Australia. The creation theory is the theory that Aboriginals have told of how their ancestors came to walk the earth. The scientific theory is the theory that Scientist came to the conclusion of how Aboriginals came to live in Australia.
In the year 1824, the film Alinta was created. The film starts with two x-convict English men being washed up on the shore where an aboriginal tribe was living, at first the prediction was made though out the tribe the ‘clay faced men’ were spirits or ghosts. Realizing they weren’t, the tribe come to the conclusion of letting them stay until they return to full health to travel again. As Alinta was collecting the water, ‘the man of the sea’ spotted her, and then took advantage of her, therefore breaking the law of the tribe leading to ‘the man of the sea’ to be killed, as he took advantage of a promised women. Alinta and her husband left, but soon after had to hurry back because some Europeans came to settle on the land.
The Europeans communicated through ‘hair of fire’ to talk to the Aboriginals about settling on their land. Even though the Aboriginals did not want such things to occur, the Europeans decide to settle anyway, despite of what the tribe had declared. The Europeans suggested to ‘man of fire’ that if he joins them again he shall be freed of being a convict, he feels as though this is a great offer that he cannot decline, so he endures to leave with the Europeans. Two years past and Alinta returns to the tribe with a baby. As the women are out hunting they come across ‘hair of fire’ and a few other Europeans on their sacred grounds, as the grandmother expresses how much disrespect ‘hair of fire’ has shown, one of the Europeans kills her. The Aboriginals get very upset and spear ‘hair of fire’, when the Europeans find out what happened they go to the tribes camp and kill them for what they had done.
Myall creek massacre
Between 1831 and 1851 about 200,000 people migrated to the Australian colonies. Squatters were people who would take possession of whatever land they could find. The extant of land being formed or used as pasture increased rapidly, as they needed people to work it. In 1835 a bounty system was introduced to improve the quality of emigrants. Many immigrants come from Britain and Ireland, including the desperately poor people who wanted a better life. As Europeans settlements spring up around the continent, the power of Goverment of the new south wales reduced.
Between 1788 the first fleet arrived. in 1868 the last group was unloaded in Fremantle. 150,000 convicts were transported to Australia. most convicts were labourers and servants, only few could read and write.The bulk of convicts had committed property crimes, but some had crimes such as vagrancy, perjury and prostitution.
Definition- A person declared guilty of a crime, sent to distant
colonies for the time of their sentence.
Types of convicts
were the worst type of convicts, as there purpose to the Government was to do all the hard labor jobs, they worked gangs.
were convicts who had completed their full term of sentence.
- were convicts who behaved well so they were pardoned ahead of time.
Ticket of leave Convicts-
were well-behaved, therefore were allow to work for themselves in order to earn a wedge.
better behaved convicts were 'loaded' to free settlers.
The majority of convicts-
came from England and Ireland, and were between the age of 15 to 35.
January 26th, 1788, in port Jackson eleven British ships carrying around 1000 convicts and working ship crew had arrived. Majority of the convicts were about to start their lives living in a penal colony. When the Europeans first stepped foot on land they encountered the Aboriginals thinking they were spirits and beginning to offering them food and women. The Europeans did not understand the Aboriginals believes and sacred rules,
they had no clue that Aboriginals had been living there for tens of
thousands of years and the land was rightfully theirs. Families were
separated, and Aboriginals were getting desperate to get their land back
so they would sell their wives to the Europeans. Aboriginal women started having
half cast babies, the half cast babies were treat terribly because neither the
Aboriginals or the Europeans wanted them, often they were killed, abounded,
abused or put in foster homes. The Europeans started building on the
Aboriginals sacred lands and fencing off properties that were the Aboriginals
used as hunting grounds and waterholes, meaning when the indigenous
would go to these places as perusal and they would be chased off or even shot.
Australia’s first governor, Captain Arthur Phillip had been ordered to make
pace with the Aboriginals, therefore there was a law put in place that if any European hunted or killed the indigenous were to be punished, but Aboriginals were excepted to act like the Europeans, they were not even allowed to take place in any spiritual ceremonies and were forbidden to speak their native language. Aboriginals were out ranked by the growing population of the Europeans who were a lot more powerful than them. The Europeans did not notice it but they killed Aboriginals by actually introducing diseases that were fatal because the indigenous immune system had not ever been exposed to such things.
Definition- A miner who digs for pans for gold in a goldfields.
World War I
Gold was first discovered in 1851. Each discovery made more and more people Migrated to try and find Gold, therefore areas would become over-crowed of people seeking gold. There are reports of gold in Victoria and New South Wales, but the authorities did not want this to be published, if the news got out it would of been almost impossible to control convicts. But eventually the news got out and newspaper ads were offering rewards for discovery of gold in Victoria.
An Aboriginal creation story from www.bigmyth.com
Between the 25th of April and the 18th of December, 1915, thousands of young Australians and new Zealand soldiers died on the beaches and cliffs and in the gullies of Turkey's Gallipoli peninsula during Australia's first land campaign of World War I. The soldiers of the AIF had expected to sail to England to complete their trainning and then go to the Western Front in France and Belgium. The strategy for an Allied attack on Gallipoli was based on the idea of Winston Churchill, who, as first lord of the admiral, controlled Britain's Royal Navy. The first landing of the soldiers on the beaches of Gallipoli took place on the morning of 25 April 1915. The battle ebbed and flowed and at last the Turkish, fighting courageously, won back control of the high ridges that had been reached by scattered groups of Anzacs. it was a long, agonizing ordeal in which the death toll mounted on both sides. The Lone Pine diversion was among the most savage battles of the Gallipoli campaign. The Australians charged the Turkish positions and lost more than 2300 killed or wounded in four days and nights of hand-to-hand fighting, the Turkish lost about 6000 men. On August the 7th, another attack whose aim was to divert the Turkish, troops of the Australian light horse were ordered to make bayonet charges up a narrow strip of open ground called the Nek. After many long months, the British command finally accepted the victory would not be possible. The soldiers and war materials were secretly at night. When the Turkish charged down from the hills on December the 20th they found that the enemy had vanished.
An image of Anzac cove.
On June the 10th, 1838, twenty-eight Aboriginal men, women and children were inhumanly murdered by eleven convict and ex-convict stockmen led by a
squatter, which later got recognised as the Myall Creek massacre.
The Aboriginals were congregated around a camp fire when the stockmen rode their horses past station huts and into the Weraerai camp, at this point the Aboriginals were petrified and hastily went into the convict’s hut pleading to Anderson and Kilmeister for fortification. Kilmeister then departed the hut to speak to the stockmen. John Russell acquired with a long tether rope, followed by a couple of the other stockmen, and they entered the hut. When Anderson asked him what he was going to do Russell responded with, “take the blacks over the back of the range and frighten them.” As the startled Indigenous men, women and children were crying and imploring to Anderson to help them. The stockmen later tied or handcuffed the Aboriginals to a tether rope, they were led out to where the other stockmen remained mounted at the front of the hut. A short time later as the sun set, Anderson heard two gun shots. By that time the twenty-eight Aboriginals were slaughtered and dismembered.
World War I was initiated in 1914. This whole ordeal began with tensions and uncertainties that were created in Great Britain and throughout Europe when Germans leader, Kaiser Wilhelm II, announced a building program to develop Germany’s navy. But the fused that really set of the war between countries was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife, Sophie, on the 28th of June, 1914, during an official visit to Sarajevo, the captain of Bosnia. Austria- Hungary wanted the 19 year old assassin to be punished, Serbia refused to take action. Clearly this made Austria- Hungary extremely irritated and lead to them declaring war on Serbia. Austria- Hungary expected Serbia’s ally Russia to join in and help, so Austria- Hungary seeked support from Germany. After this chain of events the declarations of war snowballed.
In 1886 the federal council of Australia was created, delegates from all six colonies. It was made to make sure that Britain would guarantee that it would defend the colonies if they were ever threatened. Henry Parks (1815-1896) was a prominent supporter of Federation; he was premier of New South Wales five times. He spoke to a hall full of locals, challenging them to think ‘national’. During 1891 it came apparent to politicians and business man that colonists shared a common language and values. Leading politicians from the six colonies and New Zealand held meeting to draft a national constitution. Economic issues were the focus at the politicians. Victoria proposed that colonial governments ask their voters to elect representatives for a federal constitutional convention. From this convention a draft plan was taken back to the five colonial governments, the draft plan saw that house federal parliament with an upper house of review that represent states equally. Delegates re-assembled in Sydney in September to consider amendments from the colonial parliaments. Free trade between states, and national management.