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Plate Tectonics Unit

Everything you need to know about plate tectonics.
by

Chad Kennedy

on 28 October 2016

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Transcript of Plate Tectonics Unit

Continental Drift
Wegener proposed that the supercontinent, Pangaea, began to break apart 200 million years ago and form the present landmasses.
Evidence
1. The Continental Puzzle
2. Matching Fossils - Fossil evidence for continental drift includes several fossil organisms found on different landmasses.
3. Rock Types and Structures -Rock evidence for continental exists in the form of several mountain belts that end at one coastline, only to reappear on a landmass across the ocean.
4.Ancient Climates
5. Matching Mountain Ranges
Types of Plate Boundaries
Divergent boundaries (also called spreading centers) are the place where two plates move apart
Continental Rifts - When spreading centers develop within a continent, the landmass may split into two or more smaller segments, forming a rift
East African Rift Valley
Convergent boundaries-form where two plates move together.
A subduction zone occurs when one oceanic plate is forced down into the mantle beneath a second plate.
Oceanic-Continental Convergent Boundaries
Examples include the Andes, Cascades, and the Sierra Nevadas
Crust
o Outermost Layer
o State of matter = solid
Mantle:
Middle layer
Very thick layer

o Composition = magma
o State of matter = solid that flows like a liquid
Outer core:
o Composition = nickel and iron
o State of matter = liquid
Inner core:
o Composition = iron and nickel
o State of matter = solid
Key Vocabulary
1. Crust – the outermost and thinnest layer of the earth composed of rocky matter less dense than the mantle below
2. Mantle – an earth layer composed of magma, a solid that flows like a liquid, that surrounds the spherical mass at the center of the earth
3. Outer Core – the outer section of a spherical mass at the center of the earth composed of liquid iron and nickel
4. Inner Core – the inner section of a spherical mass at the center of the earth composed of solid iron and nickel
Lithosphere
The crust and part of the upper mantle = lithosphere100 km thick
Less dense than the material below it so it “floats”
Asthenosphere
The plastic layer below the lithosphere = asthenosphere
The plates of the lithosphere float on the asthenosphere
Oceanic Crust
thin (~7 km)
dense (sinks under continental crust)
young
Continental Crust
thick (10-70km)
buoyant (less dense than oceanic crust)
mostly old
Earthquakes
P-Wave
S-Wave
After an earthquake occurs, the first seismic waves to reach a seismometer are called P-Waves (Primary Waves).
P-Waves reach the seismometer first because they move straight through solid
rock and liquids (such as water).

Word Segment.....Meaning:
-seismo-...............earthquake
-graph..................something that writes or records
-gram...................something written down, drawn or recorded
-meter..................a device for measuring

Decoding the Words:
After an earthquake occurs, the second seismic waves to reach a seismometer
are called S-Waves (Secondary Waves).

S-Waves can move through solid rock, but
cannot move through liquids.
S-Waves travel fast, but they take longer to reach a seismometer than P-Waves.

Their curvy motion causes rock particles in the earth to move perpendicular to the direction the wave travels.
After an earthquake occurs, the second seismic waves to reach a seismometer
are called S-Waves (Secondary Waves).

S-Waves can move through solid rock, but
cannot move through liquids.
Questions or Comments
Draw, color, & label layers of the Earth.
Draw, color, & label layers of the Earth.
Draw, color, & label layers of the Earth.
Transform Plate Boundaries- where the two plates slide against each other in a sideways motion. As two plates slide past one another, in a transform boundary, neither plate is added to at the boundary, nor destroyed.

Draw, color, & label layers of the Earth.
Full transcript