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A&P CH 2 - The Chemistry of Life

Lecture notes for a high school anatomy and phsiology class. introduction to biochem

Kelly Quinlan

on 24 September 2012

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Transcript of A&P CH 2 - The Chemistry of Life

The term ORGANIC refers to the enormous number of compounds containing carbon. Organic Molecules Carbon can form chains Carbon can form rings Carbon = ORGANIC Amino Acids Carbohydrates Made up of C, H, O Carbohydrates (CHO) are divided into 3 categories characterized by the length of their carbon chains: - Monosaccharides (Simple sugars)
- Disaccharides (Double sugars)
- Polysaccharides (Complex sugars) Made of: C, H used to store energy Nucleic Acids Made of: C, H, O, N, P DNA: Deoxyribonucleic Acid
RNA: Ribonucleic Acid PROTEINS Made of: C, N, H, O CH 2 - The Chemical Basis of Life The Atom - The smallest unit of Matter Protons (+) Helium Neutrons Electrons (-) Orbital - Probability distribution that tells us where the electron is most likely to be Chemical Bonds Forms when chemicals that have gained or lost an electron become charged and are attracted to each other Chemicals join together
to form molecules > macromolecules > Proteins... Covalent Bond Weak bonds between MOLECULES (not elements!) that form when the hydrogen portion of a molecule (+ charge)
bonds to the (-) portion
of another molecule. Chemical Reactions - Interactions between atoms and molecules which involve the formation or break down of chemical bonds ENERGY Decomposition Reaction - breaks down a substances into two or more simpler substances AB A + B + Energy Practice! Metabolism -All chemical reactions that occur in the body Catabolism - Reactions that break down larger molecules into smaller ones. Releases energy (ATP!) **Decomposition Reactions** Anabolism - Chemical reactions that build larger substances from smaller ones. Require energy (ATP)
**Synthesis Reactions** pH Acids - Any substance that releases a Hydrogen ion (H+) when in solution. pH < 7. Bases - a substance that accepts H+ or donates a pair of hydroxide ions (OH-). pH > 7. Electrolytes - Substances that break up in a solution to form ions Na+ Na+ K+ Ca+ Mg+ Mg+ - The relative H+ concentration of a solution Buffers - Minimize changes to the H+/OH- concentration in our body fluids.
- Help maintain consistent internal pH (homeostasis!!) Salts - result from the chemical interaction of an acid and a base HCl + NaOH --> NaCl + H2O
Acid Base Salt Water Synthesis Reaction - forms new bonds
A + B AB Glucose Water-insoluble organic molecules Classified as:
triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids, and prostoglandins *CHO's are the main source of energy for body cells In the human body there are 4 major groups of
organic molecules: - Carbohydrates
- Lipids
- Proteins
- Nucleic Acids Proteins are the building blocks of the body. - Functional: enzymes, hormones - Most basic chemical unit of Protein There are 20 commonly occuring amino acids, and nearly all 20 are present in every protein. ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS:ones that the body cannot produce itself and are needed from the diet. NONESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS: ones that the body can produce itself Levels of Protein Structure - Structural: form the structures of cells, tissues, and organs - Primary (1st level)
- Secondary (2nd level)
- Tertiary (3rd level)
- Quaternary (4th level) Amino Acid sequence long amino acid chain that is folded or twisted by H bonds twists/folds are then foded again into a 3D structure more than one folded amino acid chain **Figure 2-26 in your book** Protein shape determines its function (complementarity!) Metabolic Disorders PKU - Phenylketonuria Nucleotide **figure 2-31
in you book** - Made of sugar (deoxyribose), phosphate, and nitrogen base (either Adenine, Guanine, Cytosine, or Thymine) Genetic Material - Disorders that affect the chemical reactions of the body - Genetic disorder caused by the lack of an enzyme that catabolizes the amino acid Phenylalanine

- This causes a build up of phenylalanine in the blood which can cause severe mental retardation if left untreated Fatty Acid Triglyceride Glycerol Fatty Acid Steroids &
Sterols Examples:
- Cholesterol (important component of cell membranes)
- Hormones such as Cortisol, Estrogen, & Testosterone **Box 2-2 in your book** - most abundant lipid in the body - Most basic unit of DNA ATP - Adenosine Triphosphate - Main form of energy used by cells

- High energy covalent bonds are broken during catabolic reactions releasing ENERGY Chem Review Fats Phospholipid bilayer (cell Membrane) Ionic Bonds When two elements SHARE an electron Hydrogen Bond
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