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HHD U3 AOS 1 PART 1 (SAC 1)

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Casey Hawley

on 20 November 2016

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Transcript of HHD U3 AOS 1 PART 1 (SAC 1)

SAC 1:
Compare the health status of Australia’s population with other developed countries, and compare and explain the variations in health status of population groups in Australia

UNIT 3 AOS 1
(UNDERSTANDING AUSTRALIA'S HEALTH)

KEY SKILLS
KEY SKILL #1
KEY SKILL #3
KEY SKILL #2
KEY KNOWLEDGE/SKILL #5
Ability to def
ine key
health
and
health status
terms;

Analyse
data
used to
evaluate health status
and the ability to compare Australia’s Health status with over
developed countries
and between
Australian population groups;

Explain the relationships between the
determinants of health
and
variations
of
health status
of Australians and between
population groups

Identify determinants of health to explain differences in health status of the Australian population and between selected population groups including males and females, indigenous, rural and remote and low ses.

HEALTH
PHYSICAL ----- SOCIAL ----- MENTAL


HEALTH STATUS
LIFE EXPECTANCY ----- MORTALITY ----- MORBIDITY ----- BURDON OF DISEASE ----- YEARS OF LIFE LOST (YLL) ----- YEARS LOST DUE TO DISABILITY (YLD) ----- HEALTH ADJUSTED LIFE ----- UNDER 5 MORTALITY RATE (U5MR) ----- INCIDENCE ----- PREVALENCE ----- INFANT MORTALITY RATE ----- MATERNAL MORTALITY RATE


OTHER
DEVELOPED COUNTRY ----- TREND


KEY WORDS...
HEALTH...

DIMENSIONS OF HEALTH....

PHYSICAL HEALTH
"Relates to the efficient functioning of the body and its systems, and includes the physical capacity to perform tasks and physical fitness."

Can be measured by:
Level of physical fitness, body weight, cholesterol levels, blood pressure levels, energy levels, absence/presence of diseases, functioning of body systems
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

MENTAL HEALTH
‘State of well-being in which the individual realises his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community.’

Can be measured by:
Stress/Anxiety levels, confidence and self esteem levels and positive thought patterns
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SOCIAL HEALTH
"Being able to interact with others and participate in the community in both an independent and cooperative way."

Can be measured by:
Having a supportive network of friends and family and engaging in productive relationships with other people

DEFINITIONS...
KEY SKILL #1

"An individual's or a population's overall health, taking into account various aspects such as life expectancy, amount of disability and levels of disease risk factors'

HEALTH STATUS...
Defining key health terms;

Defining key health status terms;

INFANT MORTALITY

U5MR

MATERNAL MORTALITY

INCIDENCE

PREVALENCE

Y.L.D

H.A.L.E

MORBIDITY

BURDEN OF DISEASE & INJURY

D.A.L.Y

Y.L.L

MORTALITY

LIFE EXPECTANCY

MEASURING HEALTH STATUS

SOURCES :

- Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS)

- Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW)

- Department of Human Services (DHS)

- World Health Organisation (WHO)

MEASURING HEALTH STATUS...
“Number of years of life a person can expect to live from birth if present mortality patterns don’t change”.

One of most commonly used indicator of health status, however doesn’t indicate QUALITY of life.
LIFE EXPECTANCY…
Identify two trends in relation to the life expectancy of Australians between 1955 – 2011

AUSTRALIA’S LIFE EXPECTANCY OVER TIME
Great indicator of QUALITY of life.

HALE is always lower than Life Expectancy


"A measure of burden of disease based on life expectancy at birth, but including an adjustment for time spent in poor health. It is the number of years in full health that a person can expect to live, based on current rates of ill health and mortality."
HEALTH ADJUSTED LIFE EXPECTANCY
(HALE)…
"One DALY equals one year of healthy life lost due to premature death and time lived with illness, disease or injury."

For Example:
If 1000 DALY’s were lost due to Asthma in a population, it means that 1000 years of healthy life have been lost as a result of premature death or by people suffering from the condition who experienced a reduced quality of life
DISABILITY ADJUSTED LIFE YEAR (DALY)
BURDEN OF DISEASE (BOD)...
‘Refers to ill health in an individual and the levels of ill health in a population or group.’



Morbidity rates have increased as people are living longer due to increases in conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, kidney disease, STI’s etc.
MORBIDITY...
INCIDENCE:
"Number or rate of new cases of an illness during a period, usually 1 year. "

PREVALENCE:
"Total number or proportion of cases present in a population at a given time."

Identify two trends in relation to the mortality rates in Australia between 1909 - 2004

“Deaths in the population”

INFANT MORTALITY RATE
"Risk of an infant dying between birth and one year of age in a given year, usually expressed per 1000 live births."

UNDER 5 MORTALITY RATE (U5MR)
"The number of deaths of children under five years of age per 1000 live births."

MATERNAL MORTALITY RATIO
"Number of women dying who are pregnant or in first 42 days after giving birth or having a termination, expressed per 100,000 live births."

MORTALITY…
1. Are people who have cancer more likely to die or
suffer with the condition? How can you tell?


2. Find a condition you are more likely to suffer
from than die?


AUSTRALIA'S MORTALITY...
"A measure of the impact of diseases and injuries, specifically it measures the gap between current health status and an ideal situation where everyone lives to an old age free of disease and disability. Burden of disease is measured in a unit called the DALY."

Analyse Australia’s health status compared with other developed countries
MORTALITY
LIFE EXPECTANCY/HALE
Answer the following questions in your workbooks:


1. Explain the difference between a risk factor and a protective factor

3. Name and define the 4 broad categories of determinants

4. List 3 specific determinants from each category

5. Identify 1 specific behavioural and 1 social determinant and explain
how they are linked to better health outcomes?


DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
UNDERSTAND the role of Biological, Behavioural, Physical Environment and Social determinants of health in EXPLAINING variations in HEALTH STATUS;
APPLYING YOUR KNOWLEDGE
"Factors relating to the body that impact on health, such as genetics, hormones, body weight, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, birth weight."

BIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS
"Actions or patterns of living of an individual or a group that impact on health, such as smoking, sexual activity, participation in physical activity, eating practices."

BEHAVIOURAL DETERMINANTS.
DETERMINANTS OF HEALTH
PROTECTIVE FACTOR ----- RISK FACTOR ----- DETERMINANT

BIOLOGICAL DETERMINANTS
BODY WEIGHT ----- OBESE ----- BMI ----- BLOOD PRESSURE ----- HYPERTENSION ----- BLOOD CHOLESTEROL LEVELS ----- TRANS FATS ----- ATHEROSCLEROSIS ----- GLUCOSE REGULATION ----- GENETICS ----- GENETIC PREDISPOSITION ----- HORMONES ----- SEX ----- OESTROGEN ----- TESTOSTERONE ----- BIRTH WEIGHT

BEHAVIOURAL DETERMINANTS
TOBACCO SMOKING ----- ALCOHOL ----- DRUGS ----- PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ----- DIET ----- SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR ----- VACCINATION ----- RISK TAKING

PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT DETERMINANTS
CLIMATE CHANGE ----- HOUSING ----- WORK ENVIRONMENT ----- INFRASTRUCTURE ----- AIR QUALITY

SOCIAL DETERMINANTS
FOOD SECURITY ----- UNEMPLOYMENT ----- SES ----- SOCIAL ISOLATION ----- ADDICTION ----- STRESS ----- EDUCATION ----- SOCIAL SUPPORT ----- EARLY LIFE EXPERIENCES ----- ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE
KEY WORDS...
"Physical surroundings in which we live, work and play. The physical environment includes water and air, workplaces, housing, roads, nature, schools, recreation settings and exposure to hazards."
PHYSICAL ENVIRONMENT DETERMINANTS
SUMMARISE pp. 76 - 88
SOCIAL DETERMINANTS
Sample behavioural determinant:
TOBACCO SMOKING
APPLYING YOUR KNOWLEDGE
INDIGENOUS HEALTH VIDEOS
Experience poorer health than the rest of the Australian population. Indigenous people make up 2.5% of the Australian population
LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH

Health of males in Australia has always been below the health of Australian Females.
MALE HEALTH
MALES V FEMALES
INDIGENOUS POPULATION
LOW V HIGH SES
LOW SES POPULATION OVERVIEW
People in the highest SES tend to have more choices and resources available and therefore enjoy better health outcomes.

Health and wellbeing tend to improve for each step taken towards the highest SES.
SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS (SES)
RURAL AND REMOTE POPULATION OVERVIEW
Theory to Practice
RURAL AND REMOTE OVERVIEW
People in rural and remote areas experience worse health outcomes.

26% of rural and remote people are indigenous. – More likely to be of low SES

Many of the health concerns for indigenous and low SES are carried over to the rural and remote population
66% population live in major cities (Suburbs)
31% rural areas (E.g. Ballarat/Bendigo)
3% remote
RURAL AND REMOTE
RURAL AND REMOTE POPULATION
PMS CHARACTERISTICS
BOD ANALYSIS
MORBIDITY ANALYSIS
Discuss two trends evident in overweight and obesity over the lifespan according to figure 1.19.
BURDEN OF DISEASE
Identify one similarity and one difference between Australia and another developed country shown in figure 1.31.
COMPARING DATA BETWEEN COUNTRIES...
Using data to support your answer, discuss the health status of Australia compared to 2 other developed countries (4 Marks)
MORBIDITY
DETERMINANTS
OF HEALTH
Using data, identify 1 similarity and 1 difference between Australia and one developed country shown in Figure 1.29
(4 Marks)
APPLY YOUR KNOWLEDGE
APPLYING YOUR KNOWLEDGE
INDIGENOUS HEALTH
APPLYING THEORY TO PRACTICE
Closing The Gap
Generation One
Beneath Clouds
PG. 101
THEORY TO PRACTICE
SES OVERVIEW
THEORY TO PRACTICE
MALE AND FEMALE OVERVIEW
"Factors that raise or lower a level of health in a population or individual. Determinants of health help to explain or predict trends in health and why some groups have better or worse health than others. '
THEORY TO PRACTICE
AOS 1: SAC 1 OVERVIEW
Compare the health status of Australia’s population with other developed countries; explain variations in health status of population groups in Australia.
Create a mind map of the content covered so far.
Identify one similarity and one difference between the leading causes of death for males and females shown in figure 3.3.
KEY SKILL #2

Analysing data
Full transcript