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Transcript of Pipelines Project
Group #26 Introduction Hydrographic Surveying Procedures & Instruments Software Using For Map Design Final Product
Is the science of measurement and description of features which affect maritime navigation, marine construction, dredging, offshore oil exploration/drilling and related disciplines . Hydrographic Survey Table Of Contents HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING PROCEDURES Calculating Vertical Depth Measurements
1- Lead Line (Sounding Chain)
3-Advanced EchoSounder Vertical Depth Measurments Vertical Depth Measurements Hydrographic Surveying procedures Horizontal Postion Fixing Horizontal Position Fixing 1-Parallel Line Method Horizontal Position Fixing 2-The Ray Method Horizontal Position Fixing 3- DGPS • The sounding chain must reach the bottom in a vertical line.
• The depth reading must be recorded with the time at which the recording was made.
• The sea should be perfectly calm. The most basic and consists in setting out a
straight baseline along the beach, say 100 metres long or more, depending on the extent
of the hydrographic survey, with a ranging rod placed at either end. At every 5 or
10 metres from either end (5 metres for irregular terrain and 10 metres for flat beach),
a steel peg is driven into the ground and, by means of an optical square (or theodolite),
a buoy is dropped offshore at right angles to each peg. Conditions For taking Measurements The single theodolite, in conjunction with a float line (ray method) or twin theodolite
intersection (triangulation method), is the second most basic method of fixing positions
offshore. In the past, positioning by these methods from baseline points onshore was
often used to position vessels on near-shore projects. Differential GPS is the primary survey reference for all types of present-day
engineering and construction activities.
GPS is a continuous, all-weather, worldwide,
satellite-based electronic positioning system. It is available to the general public and is
known as a standard positioning service. Over the past several years, a technique has
been developed to process signals from two GPS receivers operating simultaneously
to determine the 3-D line vector between the two receivers. Contour Map All above ways to determine the Vertical and Horizontal Measurements , We can Finally have a plan (Contour Map) Contour Maps Softwares Using For Map Design 1) Surfer # Using by add data (levels)
and creating Contour Map . 2) Navpak pro # Dealing with GPS and used for designing Maps underwater. % Of sophisticated methods that can facilitate the design of navigational Maps. Final Product After designing contour map we take the best path of pipelines. Final Product The Slope of pipeline Construction according to the velocity of Oil. Hot-Wire Anemometer Ultrasonic Flowmeter Laser Doppler Anemometer # Velocity Of Oil Before construction of the pipelines must make sure that there are no barriers of rocks or pipelines are damaged subsea. The material of pipelines make from Fiber Glass. FPR Pipes # Easy Tarnsport and Installation.
# Bearing the High Pressure.
# The validity period exceeding 30 years. Thanks for your Attention D = 1/2 TV
D The Depth
T The Time
V The Sound Velocity The equation to calculate
the depth : A pulse of sound sent from the ship is reflected from the sea bottom back to the ship .The interval of time between transmission & reception being proportional to the depth of water . How Echo Sounder Work!!
It is the art of measurement into the water to see the bottom topography. Mean Of Hydrographic Survey Global Navigation Software NavPak *NavPak is a GPS navigation program.
*Scan charts and Creating Maps
*It is compatible with GPS units.
*NavPak was designed for marine navigation,aeronautical navigation and surveying.