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Nervous System

Explore the Nervous System with your two guides: Tushar and Daniel

Tushar Rastogi

on 4 May 2010

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Transcript of Nervous System

Main organs Control Brain Spinal Cord Peripheral Nerves Welcome to the Nervous System! The primary function of the nervous system is to coordinate the body's response to changes in its internal and external environments. The brain is the place from which nerve impulses flow and originate from.
It contains around 100 billion neurons and weighs only 1.4 kilograms (3 pounds) 3 main sections
The cerebrum is the largest section of the brain and is responsible for all voluntary actions.
It is responsible for judgment and learning.
The two layers of the cerebrum are the gray matter and white matter.
The white matter (inner layer) is the bundles of axons and myelin sheaths of neurons while the gray matter (outer layer) is the area of compacted cell bodies.
3 main sections of the Brain Cerebellum
The cerebellum is the second largest region of the brain and is located at the back of the skull.
The cerebellum coordinates the movements of the body so that the body can move efficiently.
Brain Stem
The brain stem connects the brain to the spinal cord
It is located bellow the cerebellum
The brain stem consists of two parts; the pons and the medulla oblongata
These two parts control the body's blood pressure, heart rate, breathing and swallowing. The spinal cord links the brain to the rest of the body
There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves which branch out from the spinal cord, connecting it to different parts of the body.
Reflexes (automatic responses to stimulus) are sometimes processed in the spinal cord. Cerebrum
Brain Stem
The peripheral nervous system lies outside of the central nervous system
It consists of the nerves which are not a part of the brain or spinal cord.
The nerves of this system can be divided into sensory and motor.
The sensory nerves transmit impulses from the sensory organs to the central nervous system.
The motor nerves sends impulses from the CNS to muscles or glands. The Senses! In the nervous system there are 5 basic categories of sense receptors
These sense receptors are located in the eyes, inner ears, nose, mouth and skin.
The five categories are pain receptors, thermoreceptors, mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and photoreceptors. The Neuron The neuron is a cell which transmits electrical signals called impulses.
The neuron is classified into 3 types based on the direction the impulse travels. Axon-Sends out nerve signals Dendrites- Recieve nerve signals Nerve Terminals - at the end of axons, connect neighboring neurons and transfer information
Presynaptic- the "sending" side of a synapse
Postsynaptic- the "receiving" side of a synapse
In order to send signals, the nervous system uses many chemicals as neurotransmitters.
Excitatory neurotransmitters excite the postynaptic neurons while inhibitory neurotransmitters inhibit the activity of postsynaptic neurons.
Major excitatory neurotransmitters- Glutamate, ACh (Acetyl-choline)
Major inhibitory neurotransmitters- GABA
The Synapse - The connection between nerve terminals of one neuron and other neurons *Each neurotransmitter is detected by specific receptors on the postsynaptic cell surface (like a lock and key). Interesting facts Axons can be over 3 feet long.
In the 19th century, it was discovered that there was a barrier in between the bloodstream and brain, which only allowed ions and some nutrients through.
Each of the 100 billion neurons in the nervous system forms between 100 and 1000 synapses with others, therefore the brain has over 10 trillion and 100 trillion synapses.
The presynaptic and postsynaptic neurons never actually touch. Job- Neuroradiologist
salary-$400,000-$500,000 a year
education-Neuroradiology is offered as a course from 1-3 years at over 100 neuroradiology fellowships in the United States. Each fellowship only accepts 1-3 candidates a year. These fellowships accept radiologists and neurosurgeons. Becoming a neurosurgeon takes 6-8 years on its own.
(studies and diagnoses images of the brain, neck, and spine) Dieases and Disorders- Multiple Sclerosis - unsteady movement of limbs, rapid involuntary movement of the eyes, defects in speech, weakness and inflammation of the optic nerve.
Neuritis - Inflammation of the nerves.
Parkinson's disease - Tremor, often apparent in one hand at first, then spreads to the other limbs. Expressionless face, tendency to stoop and to shuffle walk.

Interactions with other systems Skeletal-Skull protects brain.
-Brain regulates positions of bones by controlling muscles
Circulatory-Brain measures blood pressure
-Brain regluates heart rate and blood pressure
Muscular-Brain controls contractions and relaxations of muscles
Endocrine-The hypothalamus controls the pituitary gland and other endocrine glands
Immune/Lymphatic-The brain can stimulate defense mechanisms against infection
Respiratory-Brain monitors respiratory volume and respiratory rate
Digestive-Brain controls dinking and feeding behaviors
-Brain controls muscles for eating
Reproductive-Reproductive hormones affect brain development
-Brain controls mating behavior
Excretory-Bladders send sensory information to the brain
-Brain controls urination
Integumentary-Receptors in skin send sensory information to the brain
Homeostasis The nervous system maintains homeostasis by the hypothalamus.
The Hypothalamus controls hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger and body temperature. It also coordinates the nervous and endocrine systems. Caring for the nervous system When an individual reaches adulthood the brain stops growing. Neurons die and are not replaced (however what is lost is a small percentage of the whole). Certain activities such as Boxing, or doing drugs, can speed up this process and often lead to slurred speech and dementia. However, certain activities, such as a healthy diet, enough sleep, and drinking proper amounts of water keep the nervous system functioning well if maintained. Current Technology Recently, a new way to control prosthetic limbs with the brain was created. Nerves from the lost limb are taken and attached to another muscle in the body. When this muscle is activated, it will activate electrodes to help control the prosthetic limb. THANKS FOR WATCHING! Sensory ( Sense organs-> Spinal Cord and Brain)
Motor ( Brain and Spinal Cord -> muscles and glands)
Interneurons (connect sensory and motor neurons and carry impulses between them)
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