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Counterterrorism in France
Transcript of Counterterrorism in France
The French Experience
Groupe Islamique Combattant Marocain
TERRORISM AS A CRIME
Paris High Court
DGPN - SDAT
Gendarmerie - BLAT
focus on terrorism financing
reinforcement of police rights
surveillance on electronic communications
responsible for most attacks
most groups ceased terrorist activities in the 2010s
Carried out most lethal attacks
2 waves: 1960s-1980s vs 1990s-present
post-colonial grievances or resentment (Maghreb, West Africa)
integration of immigrants
Groupe Islamique Armé
suburbs' youth grievances
Vast presence of criminal organizations in France
trafficking networks internationally connected (Balkans)
Adriana Oboňová, Markéta Pavlíková, Nicolas Pavlovic, Eva Pelikánová, Karel Prášek, Paul Radloff, Ondřej Rosendorf, Emilie Roulet
(MAY ALLAH CURSE FRANCE)
AQAP (Charlie Hebdo)
(France on its knees)
cannabis and cocaine traffick
Theft, robberies, violent thefts
Car theft and smuggling
tires and engines theft
construction machines theft
money laundering, extorsion,
"soft" CT measures (since 2014)
failures of existing system vs absences
Source: Le Monde, 14.12.2013
suburbs gangs &
Vennissieux suburb around Lyon
collect it all
late creation of soft measures
Post 9/11 measures
National security alert system
Data collection: specific judicial system, no need for a warrant, practices legalized in July 2015
Searches: extraordinary powers for the police, no need for a warrant in some cases
Coordination and information-sharing: creation of the National Council on Intelligence (CNR) in 2008
No change after 9/11 but changes after the 2012 attacks
New approach similar to Western European standards
New approach similar to Western European standards
Broad online deradicalization measures (websites, hotline)
Efforts in prisons
"You will discover hell and you will die alone, far from home."
Police Working Group on Terrorism (PWGT)
Club de Berne
Groupe de Travail Tripartite (France, Belgium and Germany)
(2002 - 2009)
European Arrest Warrant
Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe
G6 Group: France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Spain, UK
Prüm Treaty (2005): France, Benelux, Austria, Germany, Spain
POST 13/11 MEASURES
state of emergency
75 weapons seized
118 house arrests
60 people in custody
414 searches (15-16.11)
intensification of strikes in "Opération Chammal"
closing of mosques
suspension of Human Rights (CEDH)
A shift to the war model?
(academic articles & sources from international organizations only - full list available upon request)
Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) (Spain, separatists, Euskadi ta Askatasuna) - Council on Foreign Relations. (n.d.). Retrieved December 9, 2015, from http://www.cfr.org/separatist-terrorism/basque-fatherland-liberty-eta-spain-separatists-euskadi-ta-askatasuna/p9271#p4
Bureš, O. (2011). EU Counterterrorism Policy: A Paper Tiger? (Prague: Metropolitan University).
Eurojust (2013). Eurojust News Issue No. 9 – June 2013 (http://www.eurojust.europa.eu/doclibrary/corporate/newsletter/eurojust%20news%20issue%209%20(june%202013)%20on%20joint%20investigation%20teams/eurojustnews_issue9_2013-06-en.pdf, 5. 12. 2015).
Foley, F. (2009). Reforming Counterterrorism: Institutions and Organizational Routines in Britain and France. Security Studies, 18(3), 435–478. http://doi.org/10.1080/09636410903132920
Gregory, S. (2003). France and the war on terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 15(1), 124–147. http://doi.org/10.1080/09546550312331292987
Hayez, P. (n.d.). France and the fight against terrorism - Terrorism and Political Violence - Volume 4, Issue 4. Retrieved November 21, 2015, from http://www.tandfonline.com.ezproxy.is.cuni.cz/doi/abs/10.1080/09546559208427177
Hellmuth, D. (2015). Countering Jihadi Terrorists and Radicals the French Way. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 38(12), 979–997. http://doi.org/10.1080/1057610X.2015.1076277
Interpol (2015). International Notices system (http://www.interpol.int/en/News-and-media/Publications/Fact-sheets/International-Notices-system/, 5. 12. 205).
Kramer, M., & Center, D. (1990). France and Middle Eastern terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence, 2(4), 574–580. http://doi.org/10.1080/09546559008427084
Pokalova, E. (2015). Legislative Responses to Terrorism: What Drives States to Adopt New Counterterrorism Legislation? Terrorism and Political Violence, 27(3), 474–496. http://doi.org/10.1080/09546553.2013.809339
Rault, C. (n.d.). The French Approach to Counterterrorism | Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. Retrieved November 23, 2015, from https://www.ctc.usma.edu/posts/the-french-approach-to-counterterrorism
Shapiro, J., & Suzan, B. (2003). The French Experience of Counter-terrorism. Survival, 45(1), 67–98. http://doi.org/10.1093/survival/45.1.67
Shaun, G. (2003). France and the war on terrorism. Terrorism and Political Violence 15 (1), p. 124–147.
Trévidic, M. (2013). Terroristes. JC Lattès.
Van Dongen, T. (2010). Mapping counterterrorism: a categorization of policies and the promise of empirically based, systematic comparisons. Critical Studies on Terrorism, 3(2), 227–241. http://doi.org/10.1080/17539150903306170
Wright, M. (2008). Technology and terrorism: How the Internet facilitates radicalization. The Forensic Examiner, 17(4), 14–20.
Zimmermann, D. (2006). The European Union and Post-9/11 Counterterrorism: A Reappraisal. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 29(2), 123–145. http://doi.org/10.1080/10576100500522215