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Transcript of Philippine Bureaucracy
perform its function as state machinery. (Tadem & Morada, 2006)
Traditional Public Administration
> bureaucracy's foundation in the PH government under 1935 Constitution
> system compatible with Weber's idea of bureaucracy
> reinforced political neutrality and career system of civil service
> "bureaucracy for development"
> In the Martial Law: bureaucracy politicized and used for purposes of regime
>Post Martial Law: participation of civil society and business sectors in bureaucracy
> reforms and changes in system
> bureaucracy to become entrepreneurial; adopt features of private business organizations
> reform, accountability, empowerment
In Philippine History
Precolonial PH - Spanish Colonization
>1898 Republic and 1899 Malolos Constitution
>Mabini appointed positions in the Republic through competitive examinations
>7 bureaucracy departments under Republic
> Americans retained the political and administrative system; added new departments
>bureaucracy characterized by accountability; engaged in service delivery
Malolos Republic - American Colonization
> Precolonial system: barangays governed by datus
> Shift to centralized system of government with ascending levels of government
>public offices granted as favor from King; enforced values of familialism, utang na loob
Independence and Democratization
"structuring the bureaucracy"
Martial Law and Beyond
- bureacracy for the purposes of the regime
- loss of neutrality
as the buzz word of the bureaucracy, which Dubsky termed
-Departments were called Ministries
-Regionalization undertaken to lessen red tape
- bureaucracy applied trends in development administration
Post Martial Law
- creation of 1987 Constitution;
- reorganization in bureaucracy
- learning experience with partnerships,
networking and consultations according to
new public management
- involvement of civil society
The Philippine Bureaucracy
The bureaucracy is a distinctive form of organization that is "ideal" for the government.
structured hierarchy of offices
engaged in careful division of tasks
rendering rational decisions based on rules
policy implementation and service delivery
in policy making
The "bureaucracy" usually refers to the departments, bureaus and offices subordinated to the executive branch of government, although it should be acknowledged that there is a bureaucracy under the judiciary and legislature.
1945-1946: Reforms by Reorganization Committee
1952: Assessment by Bell Mission
1946-1972: institutional development with 3 gov't branches
- centralized bureaucracy under President
- Mainstays: Depts of Defense, Education, Health, Public Works, Transportation, Industry and Trade, Agriculture and Natural Resources
government primarily by technical experts in various fields of governmental decision making
The Philippine bureaucracy was traditionally involved in service delivery and policy implementation, but external and internal pressures has made it a policy-making power.
It faces several challenges such as lack of funds and strategies to upgrade competencies, and to motivate civil service to deal with negative elements of institutional political culture.
The bureaucracy's performance is important because it is attributed to be the executive's performance- that is, the President's performance.
retarding the growth of political parties
leading the lack of growth to democratization
Unity of politics and administration
Bureaucrats normally performed both political and administrative functions so they should be evaluated in terms of administrative and political guides of responsibility.
Different bureaucracy concerns in different kind of states:
Role of State
1) Neutral arbriter of interests
2) State dominated by
3) Site of class struggle
Policies emerging from
Policies that favor
Policies that result from
class struggle, including
gains of poorer class
Bureaucracy, if uncontrolled,
will work primarily on its
1.) to implement and develop policies that represents the working class
2.) identify with the state or nation rather than the regime, thus maintaining the separation
3.) may generate "chaos and tensions" and provide another reason for a growing voice of the weak within a civil service.
The bureaucratic characteristics of expertise, permanence, secrecy, monopoly of information and rationality have
been identified as pushing for a bureaucracy-for-itself.
The bureaucracy as a whole cannot be
trusted to use its power for the public interest.The bureaucracy can only
be changed so much but it cannot really be
responsive to the demands of the
people unless social forces and the State
move it towards that direction.