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1. The United Nations System

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on 2 December 2015

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Transcript of 1. The United Nations System



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The General Assembly
What is the General Assembly?
What does the General Assembly do?
When does the General Assembly meet?
At the beginning of the meetings
in each year, the Assembly has a big debate at which heads of State or government present their views on a lot of issues that they think are important for the Assembly to discuss.

This can be everything from
war

and
terrorism

to
disease
and
poverty
.
What is important to the General Assembly right now?
*Sanctions can be when trade is being banned from one area to another

*Embargoes means that the population of one country cannot trade with another country
The Security Council has
15 members
and 5 of those are permanent members: China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

These countries contributed a lot to the creation of the United Nations at the end of World War II.

They where given the
status of permanent members
by the people that created the UN Charter, because they thought that these countries would continue to play important roles in keeping international peace and security.


The other
10
rotating members are elected by the General Assembly based on location, and they sit for 2 years.
The presidency of the Security Council rotates in
alphabetical
order on a monthly basis among its members.
A - Z
10
To pass a resolution in the Security Council, out of the members of the Council must vote “yes”. But if any of the 5 permanent members votes “no” — also called a — the resolution is not passed.
VETO
Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon addresses a Security Council meeting on children and armed conflict
Angelina Jolie, actress and Special Envoy of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, addresses the Security Council meeting on “Women and Peace and Security”
Zainab Hawa Bangura, Secretary-General’s Special Representative on Sexual Violence in Conflict, speaks at the Security Council meeting on “Women and Peace & Security”
The Security Council held a summit at the level of Heads of Government, focusing on the acute and emerging threat posed by foreign terrorist fighters. In this picture president Barack Obama is addressing the Security Council.
Kofi Annan (Ghana) 1997-2006
Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Egypt) 1992-1996
Javier Pèrez de Cuèllar (Peru) 1982-1991
Kurt Waldheim (Austria) 1972-1981
U Thant (Myanmar/Burma) 1961-1971
Dag Hammarskjöld (Sweden) 1953-1961
Trygve Lie (Norway) 1946 - 1952
Ban Ki-Moon (Republic of Korea) 2007 - present
... is
appointed
by the General Assembly on
recommendation
of the Security council
...serves for years and can serve for 2 terms
...is
responsible
for making sure that decisions made by the United Nations are being followed
...does not work alone but in
cooperation
and with
support
of the
Member States
...
cannot be a citizen
of any of the
five permanent members
of the Security Council
...contributes to
preventing

conflicts
and promotes
peaceful

cooperation
...can take initiative to deal with
humanitarian
problems
The Secretary-General
Two very important decisions that the Security Council has taken is to set up
International Criminal Tribunals
to prosecute crimes against humanity after the conflicts in the former
Yugoslavia
and in
Rwanda
The General Assembly is the main
deliberative
organ of the United Nations, and
all Member States
are represented
In the General Assembly, each nation, large or small, has vote, and
important decisions
are taken by a majority vote.
There are Committees
in the General Assembly
F
irst Committee (Disarmament and International Security);
S
econd Committee (Economic and Financial);
T
hird Committee (Social, Humanitarian and Cultural);
F
ourth Committee (Special Political and Decolonization);
F
ifth Committee (Administrative and Budgetary);
S
ixth Committee (Legal)
The work of the Assembly is done by these six main committees and also by the Human Rights Council, other parts of the UN System and the UN Secretariat.
The six Committees discuss different things, trying to find
solutions

that fit everyone involved.They later present suggestions for
resolutions
and decisions that the Assembly should discuss and work on at the final meeting of the Assembly.
The Assembly may discuss any matter arising under the
UN Charter
(except on disputes or situations which are being considered by the Security Council).
In recent years, a special effort has been made to
reach agreements
and make decisions, instead of a formal vote .
Decisions on international
peace and security
, admitting
new
Member States and the
UN budget
are decided by a two-thirds majority. Other matters are decided by a simple majority.
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1
3
The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) is the
central
body for coordinating the economic and social work of the United Nations and the UN System.
As much as 70 % of the work of the UN system is devoted to promoting higher standards of living, full employment, and conditions of economic and social progress and development.

ECOSOC identifies solutions to international economic, social and health problems as well as fosters world cooperation to fight poverty and helps countries reach an agreement on how to improve education, health conditions, and promote human rights.
70 %
Higher standard of living
Fight Poverty
Promote Human Rights
Progress
Development
Cooperation
Education
Health
each member has vote.
EC SOC
has members
that serve for year terms
Voting in the council is by
simple
majority
54
3
1
O
Each year, the Council holds several
short sessions
with regard to the woof the UN, often including representatives of
civil society.
To meet specific
needs
, the
General Assembly
has set up a number of specialized
agencies
and
programmes
that are coordinated by ECOSOC, such as...
The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO)
The World Health Organization (WHO)

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)
The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP),
The United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
The Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)
The Security Council
The Secretariat
The Security Council
The Trusteeship Council
The Economic & Social Council
The General Assembly
After long debates concerning where the headquarters should be built, it was decided in London, on 14 February
1946
during the first session of the General Assembly, that the
Headquarters
would be located in
New York
. This happened after the United States Congress invited the United Nations to establish its permanent home in New York.
The work of the United Nations is carried out by its principal organs:
the General Assembly,
the Security Council,
the Economic and Social Council,
the Trusteeship Council,
the International Court of Justice*;
and the Secretariat.

*The International Court of Justice is the only main organ that is not located in New York. It is based in the Hague, Netherlands.

Regional Commissions can be found in
Geneva
,
Santiago
,
Bangkok
,
Beirut
, and
Addis Ababa
, as well as field offices all around the world.

Conferences on topics such as population, food, biodiversity, climate change and human rights are held in different parts of the world.
6
The Trusteeship Council
... was assigned under the UN Charter to supervise the administration of 11 Trust Territories—former colonies or dependent territories, mostly in Africa and in the Pacific Ocean—which were placed under the International Trusteeship System.
The system was created at the end of the World War II to promote the advancement of the inhabitants of those dependent territories and their progressive development towards self-governance or independence.
Since the creation of the Trusteeship Council, more than 70 colonial Territories, including all 11 Trust Territories, have attained independence with the help of the United Nations
In 1994, Palau, formerly administered by the United States, achieved self-governance and became a Member State. After nearly half a century, the Council decided to formally suspend operations and meet only when an occasion might require it.
The Trusteeship Council is comprised of the permanent members of the Security Council—China, France, the Russian Federation, the United Kingdom and the United States. Each member has one vote, and decisions are made by a simple majority.

The Secretariat is responsible for servicing the other organs of the United Nations and administering the programmes and policies laid down by them.

The Secretariat is made up of an international staff working at the UN Headquarters in New York, as well as UN offices in Geneva, Vienna, Nairobi and all over the world.

The international staff carry out the day-to-day work of the Organization.

Their duties are as varied as the problems dealt with by the United Nations.

These range from administering peacekeeping operations, mediating international disputes, surveying social and economic trends, laying the ground work for international agreements and organizing international conferences.

Unlike diplomats, who represent a particular country and its interests, the international staff work for all
193
Member States and take orders, not from governments, but from the Secretary-General.

They are independent from political and other forms of interference and place the interests of the Organization above their own.

The Secretariat
Is an organization of sovereign States that voluntarily join together. This provides them with the mechanisms necessary to find solutions to problems and conflicts, and to act on matters of concern to humanity.
The UN System

THE UNITED NATIONS
The permanent members of the Security Council
5
The International Court of Justice
The Court settles legal disputes only between nations and not between individuals, in accordance with international law. If a country does not wish to take part in a proceeding, it does not have to do so, unless required by special treaty provisions. Once a country accepts the Court’s jurisdiction, it must comply with its decision.

Since 1946, the International Court of Justice has considered over cases and issued numerous judgments on international disputes brought to it by states involving economic rights, environmental protection, rights of passage, the non-use of force, non-interference in the internal affairs of states, diplomatic relations, hostage-taking, the right of asylum and nationality.

It has also issued advisory opinions in response to requests by a range of United Nations organizations. All judgments passed by the Court are final and without appeal.
The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the UN’s main judicial organ located in The Hague, Netherlands. Established in 1945, the ICJ, or “World Court” assumed its functions in 1946. It is presided over by judges, each from a different nation, elected by the General Assembly and the Security Council. No judges can be from the same country. It takes a majority of judges to make a decision.
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9
150
Welcome, this prezi will teach you more about the United Nations Headquarters and the UN System

On the picture above you can see some of the different buildings at the UN Headquarters in New York

The Assembly meets every year from
September
to
December.
Special sessions
may be summoned by the Assembly, at the request of the Security Council, or at the request of a majority of UN Members.
Each year, the General Assembly elects a
president
who presides over these meetings.
An important decision that the General Assembly took not so long ago was to make the United Nations
2011- 2020
Decade on Biodiversity
The loss of biodiversity
threatens

our food supplies, opportunities for recreation and tourism, and sources of wood, medicines and energy. It also interferes with
essential
ecological functions.
Protecting biodiversity is in everyone’s interest!
What does the General Assembly talk about?
September
6
1
2/3
The Security Council makes recommendations to the
General Assembly
on the appointment of a
new Secretary-General

5
The first step that the Council takes to handle a
threat to peace
is usually to ask the parties that are fighting to
try and resolve the conflict
peacefully.
If fighting still breaks out, the Council tries to convince the parties to
agree on a ceasefire
. The Council also gives advice of methods to reach an agreement and how to avoid threats or acts of aggression.
The Council may then send
peacekeeping missions
to troubled areas or call for
economic sanctions
and
embargoes
to restore peace.
How does the Security Council handle threats to
Peace & Security
?
The Member States of the UN are
responsible
to carry out the decision made by the Security Council.
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9
15
veto
Fact
Figures
&
The Council is responsible for the admission of
new members
to the UN. Many countries want to expand the membership of the Council to include new permanent and non-permanent members.
Member States
International Criminal Tribunals for Peace & Security
The Security Council has as a
first responsibility
under the UN Charter to keep
peace and security

in the world. The Security Council meets whenever there is a
threat to peace
, so they need to be ready to meet at all times.
What is the Security Council's responsibility?
Meetings at the Security Council
The Secretary-General...
Full transcript