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War for Texas Independence
Transcript of War for Texas Independence
Gone to Texas
In 1823, Americans started moving to Texas.
Those Disobedient Americans
The new Westerners promised to obey Mexican law and attend Catholic church regularly.
Remember the Alamo!
One major law was the ban on slavery. American slave owners were asked to give up their slaves, but that didn't happen and Mexican President Antonio Lopez de Santa Ana declared "martial law".
So, in 1835, Santa Anna sent 6,000 of his soldiers into Texas.
These soldiers fought against American settlers at the Alamo.
187 Americans were killed. Sam Houston refused to provide support for the Americans at the Alamo, yet used their martyrdom to urge on the fight.
In April 1836, Sam Houston defeated Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto River and forced Santa Anna to sign documents giving Texans independence from Mexico.
This surrender later on became controversial because Santa Anna basically gave Texas to the Americans without the consent of the Mexican government.
Meet the President
In September 1836, Texans elected Sam Houston to be their first President.
What Takes Even Longer than a College App?
Texas' application to the U.S. Congress to join the Union!
Took 'em 9 years!
Northern abolitionists refused to let Texas enter as a slave state. This caused a lot of tension between the North and South. There was a balance of power in the Senate between slave states and free states, however, the addition of Texas would tip this balance in favor of the slave states.
Importance: Texas set a precedent for westward expansionism and acquisition. It also marked a shift in balance to the west, and growing north-south tensions over admission of slave states.
Mr. Campbell’s PowerPoint
Slide #5: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/if_you_knew/images/map3.jpg
Slide #7: http://techrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/498917_punks-back.jpg
Slide #8: http://beforeitsnews.com/contributor/upload/5385/images/thugs-vs-people_1.jpg
Slide #10: http://www.sonofthesouth.net/texas/battle-alamo.htm
Slide #12: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1d/SantaAnnaSurrender.jpg
Slide #15: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/8/8e/SHouston_2.jpg/220px-SHouston_2.jpg
Slide #17: http://dontmesswithtaxes.typepad.com/photos/uncategorized/2008/03/02/texas_republic_flagmap.jpg
Slide 22: http://campaignrhetoric.files.wordpress.com/2011/06/texas-annexation.jpg
Treaty of Annexation,
Texas April 12, 1844
"The Republic of Texas, acting in conformity with the wishes of the people and every department of its government, cedes to the United States all its territories, to be held by them in full property and sovereignty, and to be annexed to the said United States as one of their Territories, subject to the same constitutional provisions with their other Territories."
Similar to prior treaties, the Treaty of Annexation of Texas was supposed to be ratified by Congress. However, the Treaty failed to pass, and leaders had to find another way to annex Texas...
Tyler, Polk, and Oregon to the Rescue!
What is Joint Resolution?
passes through a simple majority vote in Congress, and thus is easier and quicker than passing a Treaty of Annexation
required that Texas break itself up into 5 states
involved both the US Congress passing the resolution and the Texan Congress endorsing American annexation
Texas and Hawaii were the only states that entered the US using Joint Resolution
Much controversy surrounded the fact that Texas had not been annexed through a treaty, and instead, through Joint Resolution.
By: Anshula Gandhi and Amanda Nguyen
"REMEMBER THE ALAMO!"
John Tyler's push to ratify the Treaty of Annexation failed.
Then came along James Polk, who managed to annex Texas through a Joint Resolution which became one of his greatest accomplishments as succeeding president.
Texas had to be annexed through joint resolution, since it was easier (required less approval in the senate: 51% instead of 2/3) than a formal annexation.
Northerners agreed because Oregon was also going to be added to Union as a free state.
Famous Deaths at the Alamo
Davy Crockett - a famous frontiersman
Jim Bowie - inventor of the Bowie knife
Colonel William Travis - leader at the Alamo who lead the resistance movement
The Lone Star Republic
Applied to become a state, but was rejected
Texas became its own country calling themselves the Lone Star Republic
They saw themselves as incredibly independent and claimed that they joined the Union because they wanted to not because they had to