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Ch 18: Collective Action, Social Movement, & Social Change

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Yvonne H

on 11 November 2014

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Transcript of Ch 18: Collective Action, Social Movement, & Social Change

Characterization of social organization by rationality, bureaucratization, objectivity, and individuality created by noncentric group affiliation.
Used in fields such as art history, literature, and sociology
Creates new political structures, technological advances, and industrialization
Georg Simmel - No more postmodern lifestyle, different group affiliations overlaps because of urbanization.
Max Weber - modernity created from Protestant Reformation (introduce rationality and bureaucracy).
Pierre-Charles L'Enfant's layout of Wasthington, D.C.
Georges-Eugene Baron Haussmann's layout of Paris.
Ch 18: Collective Action, Social Movement, & Social Change
Collective Action: What It Is Good For?
Premodern, Modern, and Postmodern Societies
The Causes of Social Change
Social movements change U.S history.
Technology increase participation from everywhere and anywhere.
Social change from previous movements (civil rights and women rights) create new categories to grow.
The web is the new form of protest.
Collective action created by emotional impulse and identity.
Theories of Collective Action
Humans have become socialized into their daily activities like sitting at a assigned seat in class, this is known as
collective action
1. crowd collective action: group having face to face interaction
2. mass collective action: collective action where close distance is not necessary.
Identity and Collective Action
Social Movements
Types of Social Movements
Four Main Types
Alternative Social Movements
seek minimum societal change. They usually pertain only to a narrow group of individuals, where said individuals focus on a single issues and try to change the behaviors of those individuals in association to that issue.
Redemptive Social Movements
target specific group, advocate for more radical change in behavior. They seek to return individuals to day-to-day regular city movement.
Reformative Social Movements
they call for limited social change across an entire society.
Revolutionary Social Movements
advocate radical social movements. Movements such as the Martin Luther King Jr Alabama walk.

Models of Social Movements: How Do They Arise?
Three Stages of Social Movements
First Stage
: Emergence
When the social problem being addressed is first identified
When the problem of pollution arise and bicycles are the set alternative

Second Stage
: Coalescence
Concrete action is taken around the problem outlined in the first stage
Through education and advocacy, people become more aware of the rising problem originally set on the table

Third Stage
: Routinization/Institutionalization
Formal structure is formed to promote the cause.
i.e Pro-Choice America, Planned Parenthood

Social Movement Organizations
are groups that work together with like minded individuals to advocate for their cause.
Professional Movement
consist of two subgroups: leadership staff and membership base. The professional leaders play a major part to the moment as they speak to influence public opinion through lobbying whereas the minority (members) support through monetary and aid in protests and petitions.
Social Movement Organization
AIDS was originally known as the "gay-related immune deficiency" or GRID as it was a new disease identified in 1981 by doctors who examined homosexual males.
Classical Model
: Based on a concept of structural weakness in society. (McAdam, 1982)
Results in psychological disruption of individuals
When it reaches a certain point it gives rises to a social movement
Critics of this theory point out that they are various strains and impacts present in every society
Resource-Mobilization Theory
: Emphasizes political context and goals (McCarthy & Zald, 1973, 1977)
States social movements are unlikely to emerge without resources
If they have resources, they are unlikely to succeed
Successful social movements are led by those who are relatively powerless
Political Process Model
: Focuses on the structure of political opportunities
The chances are better for success led by challenges
Combines variables internal and external to the movement
The movement can be sustained over time

Voluntary Organizations: Why is American a "Land of Joiners
Change is evident throughout these past decades: immigration patterns, technology, fashion, culture, etc.
These aspects affect society in ways of family life...
The average household has declined to 2.59 people in 2000 compared to 4.6 in the 1900 (Conley 714).
Social changes implemented through racism with African Americans.
Social change
is the transformation in social institutions, political organizations and cultural norms across time.
Social Movements and Social Change
Premodern Societies
The characterization of a social organization based on the concentric and ascriptive affiliation.
Ties down to the "primitive" societies (tribes and villages)
low literacy rate
low division of labor
undeveloped technology
Tradition and customs are important in premodern societies.
George Simmel - Concentric Circle of Social Affiliation.
Postmodern Societies
Characterization of social organization that questions the progression and history, and conflicts from disjointed affiliations.
Follows the concept of
, taking bits from different cultures and make it one.
No specific time period, form of social disorganization.
Science and logic failed to answer questions and was abandoned.

Technology and Innovation
Technology influences on organization of social/economic life.
Computers and Internet allows people from different countries hold telephone conferences.
Blackberries lets employees work and have contact to clients 24/7.
People can work at home.
New Ideas and Info influence change.
Red wine decrease chance ofheart disease
Pollution is very high: cause hybrid cars to be heavily needed
Political Leaders change ideals. I.e. Europe and it's emergence of the Green Party.
Social Change and Conflict
Ideas/Institutions cause conflict, and new socialization pattern emerge to solve it.3
Division of Germany after WW1 is direct conflict.
caused different political views and ideas to emerge in East & West Germany.
WW1 cause Cold War, establishment of State of Israel, and United Nations
Georg Wilhelm Fredrich Higel - Theory of dialects, conflicts motor history.
Protest Through the Internet
Straightforward petition drives (thepetitionsite.com and voteswap.com)
Is inexpensive compared to past.
Email instead of letters
Websites instead of offices
Electronic Disturbance Theater (EDT)
Organize virtual sit-ins to bring down websites.
Bureau of Inverse Technology (BIT)
Anonymous organization that is both activism and art.
"kits" used to enlist other activists.
"hactivists" impersonation
Works Cited
Conley, Dalton. You May Ask Yourself: An Introduction to Thinking
Like a Sociologist. New York: W.W. Norton, 2008. Print.

Participatory Movement Organization
is a group that divides members to "protest organization and grassroots" (Conley 717).
Mass protest organization
: are groups that perform public demonstrations and protests to advocate for their cause.
Gay Men's Health Crisis (GMHC) was a movement established as more people were infected. This formalized organization helped spread awareness as they began publishing newspaper articles.
AIDS walk
first international AIDS conference in Alaska
NAMES Project AIDS Memorial Quilt
December 1, 1988 ; first AIDS Day

Grassroots Organization
are advocates who work on existing political structures and promotes social change locally. They lack a hierarchy of leadership.
*Typically advocate for a change through writing.
What is Identity?
How do you identify yourself?
A student?
A mother?
A daughter/son?
If more information is asked, what else would you tell a person?
Mention the neighborhood you live in?
Your sexual orientation?
Political affiliations?

In a paradox, what makes you, you, is the affiliation with various group identities.
Americans have the opportunity of more opportunities compared to other countries.
Made independent citizens have a say and aid each other.
Parent Teacher Association (PTA)
local softball league
knitting club
America's unique "egalitarian nature" made citizens more likely to donate their time (Conley 722).
Convergence Theory
is collective action when a group of people with the same mindset come together.
ex: riots during a football match
Contagion Theory
is collective action when one follows the crowd
ex: chanting during a protest
Emergent Norm Theory
is collective action where leaders influence the avocation of specific norms
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