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Introduction to Psychology
Transcript of Introduction to Psychology
What is Psychology?
What's the difference?
: an action that
can be observed or measured
: cognitive activities that
cannot be observed
What are the
How do Psychologists Conduct their Research?
Subjects of Experimentation
Experimentation usually involves animals.
Gorillas, Rats, Pigeons, and Sea Snails
Research is organized into theories.
: statements that
why things are the way they are and why they happen the way they do
When theories are found inadequate
to predict or explain something, they should
then be revised
However, some people feel hungry without contractions
Ex: Psychologists once believed hunger was caused by contractions in the stomach
Considered one of the
founders of modern Psychology
1879 he established the
to specifically study the mind and behavior
Attempted to understand the structure of the mind.
Classified thoughts/feelings as:
Thus, his ideas were called
Father of American Psychology
Believed to have written the
first psychology textbook
Focused on with how our thoughts and mental processes help us adapt to our environment
Psychoanalysis is a school of thought that focuses on the
unconscious mind and the internal conflicts that influence human behavior
unconscious sexual and aggressive urges governed conscious behavior and feelings
Felt psychology should be limited to the
Primarily concerned with
Another Important Behaviorist
Used laboratory to teach animals complex behaviors with rewards and punishments
Used this to understand the way people learn
1. Biological Perspective
Psychologists who agree with the biological perspective will:
Believe our mental processes (thoughts, dreams, and feelings) can be described and explained by looking at the
They will always be looking for a
and a part, process, or chemical, in the
2. Evolutionary Perspective
Darwin's idea "evolution" molds some psychologists views on the mind and behavior.
These psychologists believe
the way we think and act
is a direct result of physical and mental
adaptions our body is undergoing in order to survive
3. Cognitive Perspective
Cognitive Psychologists primarily focus on the
They are focused on explaining
how our thinking patterns effect our behavior
They'll try to investigate the way people perceive the world, the way they learn, and the process of coding and retrieving memories.
4. Humanistic Perspective
These psychologists tend to focus
less on biological based information
and more on the person and their feelings.
Their big focus is on the patients'
The individual and his or her personal experiences are most important. This psychologist will believe that the person is
free to choose new behaviors and work toward being a better person through self-awareness
5. Psychodynamic Perspective
As previously mentioned, the ideas of psychoanalysts derive from the idea that
unconscious forces drive our behavior
6. Behavioral Perspective
These psychologists believe that the way we think and act is a result of our experiences.
taught us to continue the behavior and
did the opposite.
Psychology Professors and Teachers
Other Psychology Fields
Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Human Factors Psychology
Speeding Trolley Dilemma
Criminal Minds Behavior Analysts
Presenting a Profile
Concerned with how the structures functioned in everyday life
Developed around the late 1800s early 1900s
Developed in the early 1900s
Behaviors and who we are is
Seven Perspectives of Psychology
Since some parts of psychology are still not completely understood...
Today many psychologists tend to associate themselves with others that have the same ideas as they do.
In modern psychology, there are about 7 different perspectives (approaches).
...or based on our innate desire to reproduce and pass on our genes.
They ask questions like...
might be causing this behavior?
They are not concerned with the unconscious but rather observable behaviors.
We are a product of what we were
to behave the way we do.
7. Social-Cultural Perspective
A psychologist from this perspective is believes
plays the biggest role in the shaping of our thoughts and behaviors.