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Copy of Copy of Copy of Copy of learning metaphor

learning metaphor
by

Fabio Ordoñez

on 29 September 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Copy of Copy of learning metaphor

vocabulary
grammar
speaking
listening
reading
writing
IPA
word stress
meaning
referent
synonym
example
picture
draw it
take it from google images
vocabulary
agenda

consonant sounds
vowel sounds
diphthongs
apostrophe
critical thinking skills
writing
process

listening
routine

conversation
analysis

grammar box
analysis

E
N
G
L
I
S
pronunciation
h
English sound
system

Tip
Boosting your IELTS and TOEFL score
through pronunciation
Big and....
... small
too

remember...
No pain, no gain.
p
r
o
n
u
n
c
i
a
t
i
o
n
Looking forward to
reaching the summit?
Pronunciation
Pronunciation and IELTS
Pronunciation and TOEFL
Why Pronunciation matters
The Role of Pronunciation in IELTS & TOEFL
Pronunciation in
IELTS and TOEFL
Consider the importance of
key pronunciation features
Suggest a Pronunciation Routine
Why?
TOEFL
IELTS
We need to accomodate our speech to gain privileges.
TOEFL
Speaking Criteria
Delivery
of response
Native Language Influence
IELTS
Speaking Criteria
IELTS
Pronunciation
Key features:
(Giles, 1973)
(humanaccents.com)
Our job security and
academic advancement
is at stake because of mispronunciation
(Reed, 2005)
(Rogers, Thomson)
(Speaking Rubrics
TOEFL, ETS)

(Cambridge University Press)
(ielts.org)
(KAPLAN IELTS)
A systematic work on pronunciation complements other language skills.
(Red-Michaud, 2005)
PRONUNCIATION
LISTENING
SPEAKING
SOUND CONCEPTS
RHYTHM
GRAMMAR SOUNDS
ENGLISH SOUNDS
(Reed & Michaud, 2005)
I.P.A
MANNER AND VOICE
PLACE OF ARTICULATION,
12 vowel, 8 diphthong 24 consonant sounds
WORD
STRESS
LONG, CLEAR & STRONG
8 RULES IN SHORT WORDS
4 RULES IN LONGER WORDS
-ED
/t/ /d/ /Id/
REGULAR VERBS AND PARTICIPIAL ADJECTIVES ENDINGS
-S
/s/ /z/ /Iz/
PLURALS, 3rd PERSON SINGULAR, CONTRACTIONS AND POSSESSIVES
RHYTHM
CONTENT, GRAMMATICAL AND FOCUS WORDS
STANDARD & EMPHATIC
SOUND
CONCEPTS
OVERALL FEATURES
LINKED, DELETED, CONTRACTED, REDUCED ALTERED SOUNDS & PAUSING
Thanks!
"If you keep on doing what you have always done, you will ke
e
p on getting what you have always got"
W> L. Bateman

STRESS 2 SYLLABLES BEFORE
VERBS ENDING IN
-ATE

STRESS 1 SYLLABLE BEFORE
SUFFIXES
-GRAPHY & -LOGY

STRESS SYLLABLE BEFORE
SUFFIXES BEGINNING WITH LETTER “i”

VERBS: STRESS 2ND SYLLABLE
2-SYLLABLE VERBS USED AS NOUNS

STRESS -TEEN
NUMBERS

STRESS SELF/SELVES
REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

STRESS 2ND SYLLABLE
COMPOUND ADVERBS

STRESS THESE SYLLABLES
SUFFIXES –EE, -EER,
-ESE, -ETTE & -IQUE
STRESS
2ND WORD OR PARTICLE
PHRASAL VERBS

STRESS 2ND SYLLABLE
2 SYLLABLE VERBS
PREFIXES RE- CON- AD-

STRESS 1ST SYLLABLE
COMPOUND NOUNS
STRESS BOTH SYLLABLES
PHRASES

VERBS THAT END
IN SOUNDS
/t/ OR /d/
/Id/
VERBS ENDING IN VOICELESS SOUNDS
/t/

VERBS ENDING
IN VOICED SOUNDS
/d/
“It smells like SPINACH. I HATE spinach. OH…it´s BROCcoli. I LOVE broccoli”
FOCUS NEW INFORMATION
FOCUS WORDS
I have some GOOD news, and some BAD news
FOCUS CONTRAST WORDS
FOCUS WORDS
I was so TIRED, that I slept LATE
FOCUS THE LAST CONTENT WORD
FOCUS WORDS
JHON`s an OLD FRIEND
GRAMMATICAL WORDS
ARTICLES-CONJUNCTIONS-PREPOSITIONS-PRONOUNS-AUX. VERBS-VERB TO BE
GRAMMATICAL WORDS
be CAREful NOT to SIT on the WET PAINT
CONTENT
WORDS
NOUNS-MAIN VERBS-ADJECTIVES-ADVERBS-NEG-WH-INTERJECTIONS
CONTENT
WORDS
ABRUPT-ANGRY-IMPATIENT
EQUAL STRESS


In English, some words and syllables are strong and others are weak

In Spanish every syllable has more or less equal emphasis
/t/ : better-lettuce
SOUNDS ARE ALTERED
SOUND CONCEPTS
/wana/ : want to
/dya/ : do you
SOUNDS ARE REDUCED
SOUND CONCEPTS
/th/ : them
/h/ : he-his-her-him
SOUNDS ARE DELETED
SOUND CONCEPTS
SOUND CONCEPTS
/hi:z/ : he is
/wIr/ : we are
SOUNDS ARE CONTRACTED
SOUND CONCEPTS

WHEN THE WORD ENDS IN A VOICELESS SOUND
/s/

WHEN THE WORD ENDS IN A VOICED SOUND

WHEN THE WORD ENDS IN A SIBILANT OR BUZZING SOUND
/Iz/
Use of Language
Development of Topic
Delivery of Response
Pronunciation
Fluency
Stress
Intonation
Pausing
Intelligibility
Lexical Resource
Grammatical Range
Fluency & Coherence
Pronunciation
Intonation
stress
Connected speech
Use of a wide range of pronunciation features
in a natural way is
essential
Variety
Position 1
Position 2
Step 1: The Tongue
Step 2: The Mandible
Step 3: The Lips
Step 4: The Vocal Folds
Step 5: The Veloparyngeal Port
Position 1
Position 2
Step 1: The Tongue
Step 2: The Mandible
Step 3: The Lips
Step 4: The Vocal Folds
Step 5: The Veloparyngeal Port
Position 1
Position 2
Step 1: The Tongue
Step 2: The Jaw
Step 3: The Lips
Step 3: The Lips
Step 4: The Vocal Folds
Step 5: The Velopharyngeal Port
Position 1
Position 2
Step 1: The Tongue
Step 2: The Mandible
Step 3: The Lips
Step 4: The Vocal Folds
Step 5: The Velopharyngeal Port
Step 1: The Tongue
Step 2: The Lips
Step 3: The Vocal Folds
Step 4:The Velopharyngeal Port
Step 5: Air Pressure
Position 1
Position 2
Position 1
Position 2
Step 1: The Tongue
Step 2: The Lips
Step 3: The Vocal Folds
Step 4: The Velopharyngeal Port
Step 5: Air Pressure
Position 1
Position 2
Step 1: The Tongue
Step 2: The Lips
Step 3: The Vocal Folds
Step 4: The Velopharyngeal Port
Step 5: Air Pressure
Position 1
Position 2
Step 1: The Tongue
Step 2: The Lips
Step 3: The Vocal Folds
Step 4: The Velopharyngeal Port
Step 5: Air Pressure
Position 1
Position 2
Step 1: The Tongue
Step 2: The Lips
Step 3: The Veloparyngeal Port
Step 4: The Vocal Folds
Step 5: Air Pressure
Position 2
Position 1
Step 1: The Tongue
Step 2: The Lips
Step 3: The Vocal Folds
Step 4: The Velpharyngeal Port
Step 5: Air Pressure
Position 2
Position 1
Step 1: The Tongue
Step 2: The Lips
Step 3: The Vocal Folds
Step 4: The Velopharyngeal Port
I love hot smoked salmon with baked potatoes,
He was amazed that he had pulled off what he had planned.
topped with cracked pepper and mixed herbs,
while wearing a black hat in my hut
•She wanted to be invited so that she would be included, delighted and excited.
/z/
THOUGHT GROUPS
SOUND CONCEPTS
Pausing after each thought makes understanding easier
OVERALL FEATURES
INTONATION
FALL, RISE AND PARTIAL FALL
OF THE PITCH OF THE VOICE
RISING INTONATION
INTONATION
To request clarification
At the end of yes/no ?
To check knowledge
Uncertainty
Completion of an idea
Certainty
At the end of WH ?
First option(s) in a list:
Rising Intonation
Second option in a list:
Falling Intonation
INTONATION
FALLING INTONATION
PARTIAL FALL OR RISING
More to come
Unfinished ideas
INTONATION
RISING & FALLING
INTONATION
INTONATION
& all vowel sounds
& vowel sounds
We use -s endings on the following cases:

Plurals:
My aunt
s
work.

Verbs (present tense singular):
My aunt work
s
.

Possessives:
What was Mike'
s
answer?

Contractions:
The lamp'
s
on.
We use -s endings on the following cases:

Plurals:
My brother
s
work.

Verbs (present tense singular):
My aunt play
s
.

Possessives:
What was Ann'
s
answer?

Contractions:
The battery'
s
on.
/z/
/s/
We use -s endings on the following cases:

Plurals:
My niec
es
work.

Verbs (present tense singular):
My aunt judg
es
.

Possessives:
What was Georg
e
'
s
answer?

Contractions:
The watch
es
are on.
/Iz/
STRESS IMPORTANT CONTENT WORDS
THIS MUST BE DONE BY NOON
REDUCE OR WEAKEN FUNCTION WORDS
intonation when delivering answers
Motivation,
exposure & phonetic instruction guarantee intelligibility
(Celce-Murcia, 1996)
Privileges
Why?
Integrated Skills
High scoring responses should contain relevant intonation, stress and rhythm patterns to convey intellible meaning.
TOEFL
Key Features
Scoring Rubrics
ETS Propell
Unintelligible accent features interfere with communication
Pronunciation is an integrated system, not a process of speculation
&
Empirical instruction
is valid but not
accurate.
RELEVANCE
CONSONANT & VOWEL SOUNDS
ACCURACY RESULTS IN HIGHER SCORES
-ED AND -S ENDINGS ARE ESSENTIAL TO CONVEY ESSENTIAL GRAMMATICAL INFORMATION
RHYTHM, STRESS & INTONATION ALL CARRY MEANING. ERRORS SERIOUSLY IMPAIR COMMUNICATION:
WHAT IS MEANT
WORKING ON SOUND CONCEPTS IMPROVES LISTENING & UNDERSTANDING WHAT IS SAID
1. Consonant + Vowel: Write it
2. Vowel + Vowel: Play it
3. Consonant = Consonant: Orange juice
4. Consonant
Consonant: Hot dog
DEADline
downTOWN
mySELF
FIVE DAYS
reQUIRE
preSENT
NOUNS: STRESS 1ST SYLLABLE
PREsent
print OUT
eCOlogy
thirTEEN
INdicate
tecNIQUE
loCAtion
Full transcript