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Periodontal ligament

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by

alanoud k

on 14 February 2015

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Transcript of Periodontal ligament

Cellular Components
The cells of periodontal ligament are categorized as :
SYNTHETIC CELLS ( osteoblast,fiberoblasts , cementblasts )
RESORPTIVE CELLS ( osteoclast,fiberoblasts , cementclasts )
PROGENITOR CELLS
EPITHELIAL CELL RESTS OF MALASSEZ
DEFENCE CELLS (mas cells , macrophages )

Interstitial space
space between each groups of fibers, contains network of blood vessels, nerves and lymphatic that maintain the vitality of PDL.

Function of PDL
Sensory
Nutritive
Formative
Protective
Periodontal ligament
Introduction
PDL is a dense fibrous connective tissue that is the tissue of "attachment" of the tooth to the alveolar bone .it occcpies the space between tooth and alveolar bone .the average width of periodontal space is 0.2 and the dimension decrease with age and the size increased function of tooth .
Fibers

These are important elements of the periodontal ligament which are collagenous, arranged in bundles and follow a wavy course when viewed in longitudinal section.

The Principal fibers bundles consist of individual fibers forming a continuous anastomosing network between tooth and bone.

PDL is made up of two hard tissues and two soft tissues:
Cementum ,alveolar bone .
Periodontal ligament and lamina propia gingiva.
The shape of the ligament is like an hour glass.

The other terms used for PDL
DEMONDONT
GOMPHOSIS
PERICEMENTUM
DENTAL PERIOSTEM

horizontal group
oblique group
transseptal group
alveolar crest group
apical group
inter radicular fiber


Terminal portion of the principal fibers that insert into cementum and bone are termed Sharpey's fibers , they originate from bone or cemantum they join the adjacent fibers and from a meshwork oriented between bone and cementum .


the main blood supply to pdl is from superior & inferior alveolar arteries.
The blood vessels are derived from the following ;
branch from apical vessels
branch from intra-alveolar vessels
branch from gingival vessels

Blood vessels
branches of second & third division of trigeminal nerve
Provide sense of touch, pressure and pain.

Nerve Supply
Lymphatic
the lymphatic drainage is from the ligament to the alveolar bone. Follows the path of blood vessels.
Physical function
provision of soft tissue casing
transmission of occlusal forces to bone
attaches the teeth to bone

Clinical application
Cementicles
small calcified bodies present in PDL. May be fused with cementum or may be free.

Principal fibers
Oxytalan fibers
Sharpe's fibers
The periodontal ligament contains Oxytalan fibers that are related to elastic fibers of blood vessels , generally they run parallel to root surface.
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