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The Molecular Basis of Life - Part I

Carbohydrates
by

Timothy Riggs

on 19 August 2012

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Transcript of The Molecular Basis of Life - Part I

Please take out and review your notes.
The
Molecular Basis
of Life

All living things
are are said to be
organic organisms
because they contain
the element carbon.
biology =
study of life
So
what are the
characterisitcs
of life?
carbohydrates are monomers
monomers =
carbon
hydrogen
oxygen
most carbohydrates have a backbone of
3-7 carbon atoms
most of the carbon atoms
have a hydrogen atom
and a hydroxyl group (OH)
attached to them
the formula for
carbohydrates is
(CH2O)n where n = the
number of carbons
the term
carbohydrates
literally means
carbon and water
carbohydrates = sugar
CARBOHYDRATES
monosaccharides
disaccharides
polysaccharides
starch
glycogen
cellulose
and other
carbohydrates
multiple
long chains
glucose
fructose
form a
single chain
sucrose
lactose
form a
double chain
glucose -
monosaccharide

glucose is
the building block
for the
polysacchariede
cellulose
glucose =
C6H12O6

glucose
fructose
galactose
are similar
monosaccharides

other important
monosachharides
are ribose and
deoxyribose
each with 5 carbons
these three
monosaccharides
are easily broken
down into energy
the "deoxy" in deoxyribose
implies that it has one less
oxygen than ribose
Tip
RNA and
DNA

ribose and
deoxribose form
RNA & DNA
critical to passing
on genetic information
2 monosaccharides
combine to form
disaccharides
*plants use these to store energy
sucrose & lactose
most common
subunits of
disaccharides

sucrose (a.k.a. table sugar) = glucose and fructose
sucrose is derived from sugar cane
and sugar beet crops
mammal milk
(lactose milk sugar)=
lactose + glucose
Full transcript