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Transcript of Active Transport
Ex: Cells need large amounts of glucose
To meet this need glucose particles move from an area of low concentration to high concentration
Reverses the usual movement caused by diffusion Parts of Active Transport Cell Membrane
Surrounds the entire cell
Has special "doors" that can control what enters and leaves the cell
Liquids inside and outside the cell
Have different concentrations
Electrically charged particles
Carrier protein Active Transport Presentation by Gem, Jasmine, Jordan, Zack B. How it works There are three types of Active Transport
Sodium Potassium pump
Exocytosis Different Types of Active Transport We have 100 trillion - 100 000 000 000 000 - cells in our bodies
Thin skin is an old word for cell membrane
Very strong tendency for molecules to move from higher concentration to low, just on thermal energy
Molecules at normal temperatures have very high speeds and do random things
Ex: water molecules at 20°C have an effective speed of over 600 m/s or over 1400 miles an hour Active Transport Cell Membrane Sodium Potassium Pump Also known as a cell-membrane pump that uses energy to transport sodium and potassium ions in and out of the cell Endocytosis Process by which cells can take in large particles and deposit them into the cell
Accomplished by forming membrane-bound sacs that pinch off from the cell membrane
Can be used to bring large particles, such as glucose, into a cell
This process can be used by white blood cells to ingest viruses or bacteria and digest them in their lysosomes Exocytosis Very similar to endocytosis except that it deposits materials from inside the cell to the outside instead of the other way around
Vesicles are formed in the golgi bodies
Filled with materials to be sent outside the cell
Then fuse with the cell membrane and release their contents outside of the cell The pump is powered by a molecule of ATP. ATP allows the shape of the pump to change, emptying its contents either into or out of the cell.
Steps that the sodium-potassium pump uses to function
Three sodium ions form inside the cell bind to the pump
The phosphate group form a molecule of ATP binds to the pump
The pump changes shape and the sodium ions are released outside the cell
Two potassium ions bind to the pump
The phosphate group is released from the pump and the pump again changes shape and releases the ions into the inside of the cell Inhibitors stop the membrane proteins from transporting their molecules
Sometimes the proteins are destroyed; other times they're just plugged Quiz How many parts are there in active transport?
What's the function of active transport?
What are the three types of active transport?
What stops the membrane proteins from transporting their molecules? Inhibitors: something that restrains, blocks, suppresses Bibliography "Active Transport Across Cell Membranes." Active Transport Across Cell Membranes. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. <http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/biology/actran.html>
"Biology Facts." AdF.ly - Shrink Your URLs and Get Paid! Biology Facts, n.d. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. <http://adf.ly/3279148/banner/http://biologyfunfacts.weebly.com/active-transport.html>.
"Active Transport - Energy to Transport." Biology4Kids.com: Cell Function: Active Transport. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Mar. 2013. <http://www.biology4kids.com/files/cell2_activetran.html>.Johnson,
Rebecca L., and Jack Desrocher. Mighty Animal Cells. Minneapolis, MN: Millbrook, 2008. Print.
Johnson, Rebecca L., and Jack Desrocher. Ultra-organized Cell Systems. Minneapolis, MN: Millbrook, 2008. Print. Molecules: small particle which consists of one or more atoms Peripheral protein: not bounded as strongly to the membrane
sits on the surface of the membrane Integral protein: permanently connected to the cell membrane
has large sections embedded in the middle layer of the membrane Atoms: extremely small
smallest component of an element Diffusion: also known as migration
a mix of molecules, ions, etc.
when particles spread apart/dissolve
when small molecules go from high to low concentration ATP: Adenosine triphosphate
a combination of two other molecules Phosphate: a type of salt A protein attaches to a substance and uses energy to move it through a cell membrane and it releases it on the opposite side of the membrane Carrier protein: in a cell membrane, a protein that controls the passage of substances into or out of a cell It lets some things but not others pass into or out of the cell
Protein products the cell makes are able to leave
Substances that the cell needs to live and grow are allowed to enter
Substances that might damage the cell or its organelles are never allowed inside Fascinating Facts