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AISD 6th Grade Science: Taxonomy
Transcript of AISD 6th Grade Science: Taxonomy
The classification or organization of organisms based on shared characteristics.
3 Domains of Life
All organisms are classified into 1 of 3 domains.
Eubacteria are single celled organisms enclosed by a cell membrane and cell wall, but do not include a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles. Although some Archaea and Eukaryota cells have a cell wall, they are made up of different substances; Eubacteria cell walls are constructed using a network of sugar and amino acids
Eubacteria cells reproduce asexually (without sex) by a process known as binary fission. The bacteria make a copy of their DNA and simply divide in two.
Eubacteria can either be autotrophic or heterotrophic depending on the species.
Archaea are single celled organisms enclosed by a cell membrane and cell wall, but do not include a nucleus or any other membrane-bound organelles. While all cells have a membrane made up of lipids (a kind of fat), the membranes of Archaea cells are uniquely constructed; this difference is believed to makes it easier for Archae to survive extremely high temperatures or salt concentrations.
Eubacteria cells can reproduce asexually (without sex) using different processes including:
Binary Fission (or cell division)
Fragmentation (or splitting into pieces)
Archaea can either be autotrophic or heterotrophic depending on the species. The chemical reactions used by Archaea are similar to photosynthesis and glycolysis, but represent more primitive metabolic processes observed in Eubacteria and Eukaryota
Protists are unicellular, eukaryotic organisms that can occur in large colonies, but do not form any kinds of specialized tissues.
Most protists display both asexual and sexual reproduction during their lifetime.
Organisms in the domain Eukarayota are nearly all multicellular and all contain a nucleus. In addition, they also contain membrane-bound organelles. The presence of membrane-bound organelles creates little compartments (or rooms) inside the cell that perform specialized functions.
Eukaryota can either be autotrophic or heterotrophic depending on the species.
Eukaryota are able to reproduce sexually or asexually depending on the species.
Animals are multicelluar, eukaryotic organisms. Unlike other groups, animals cells do not have a cell wall.
All plants are autotrophic and use a process known as photosynthesis. Photosynthesis uses light energy from the sun to construct nutritional substances like sugar.
Plants are multicellular, eukaryotic organisms. Like bacteria, plants have a cell wall, but it is constructed using a different sugar called cellulose.
Plants can reproduce sexually or asexually depending on the species; some species can do both.
Protists are heterotrophic or autotrophic depending on the species. Some species, like Euglena, can switch between being autotrophs or heterotrophs.
All fungi are eukaryotic and most species are multicellular; yeast is an example of a unicellular fungus. Like plant cells and bacteria, fungi have cell walls, but it is constructed using a different sugar known as chitin.
Fungi are heterotrophs that absorb nutrients from living or decaying matter.
Most fungi display a complex life cycle, reproducing both sexually and asexually. When reproducing asexually, fungi create spores that can grow into new organisms.
All animals are heterotrophic.
Most animals reproduce sexually; a few can reproduce sexually or alternate between sexual and asexual reproduction.
Characteristics of Life
1. All life is made up of one or more cells
2. All life responds to stimuli
3. All life is capable of reproduction
4. All life uses some form of energy
5. All life grows and changes over time
6. All live displays motion, whether internally or externally