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Community Language Learning (CLL)

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Omar Garcia P.

on 19 March 2016

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Transcript of Community Language Learning (CLL)

Historical Development
according to Charles Curran (1976)
Characteristics
No syllabus
Objective
The student will learn a second language
in a nondefensive manner
being treated as a
Elements for non-defensive learning
Community Language Learning
(CLL)



The
Community Language Learning
(CLL) is a


based on the

Counseling-Learning



"Counseling Approach"

Teacher's Role
Student's Role
Evaluation
Advantages
Criticism
SSs are free to report how their desires, frustations, etc...
Tecniques
Curran emphasized both the role of the learner as an individual and as a member of a group:
(Collaborative learning)
Small-group talks
method
in Norman (2003:55)
Selected Bibliography
Norman, Susan (2003).
Transforming Learning: Introducing SEAL Approaches
. Saffire Press. Society for Effective Affective Learning. ISBN: 1901564061
Paul G. La Forge (1975).
Research Profiles with Community Language Learning
. Issue 1 of Perspectives in counseling-learning monograph. Counseling-Learning Institutes.
Paul G. La Forge (1974).
Community Language Learning: Findings Based on Three Years of Research in Japan
(1971-1974). Educational Resources Information Center,
Paul G. La Forge (1983).
Time and Space with Community Language Learning
. JALT Journal. Issue 5.1. See http://jalt-publications.org/files/pdf-article/jj-5.1-art3.pdf
Curran, Charles Arthur (1976).
A comprehensive treatment of the theory behind CLL.
Apple River Press. Counseling-Learning in Second Languages.
Further reading
Learning is thought to be reached through
interpersonal interactions

and
empathetic relationships.
Entire reliance upon inductive strategy of learning
Curran, Charles Arthur (1972).
Counseling-learning: A Whole-person Model for Education
. New York ; London : Grune and Stratton, Inc.
Colin Baker (1998). Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education.. Sylvia Prys Jones. Multilingual Matters.
Springer (1973), Journal of Religion and Health. Vol. 12, No. 3, Jul.. Counseling - Learning: A Whole-Person Model for Education.
http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/27505185?uid=3738664&uid=2129&uid=2&uid=70&uid=4&sid=21103758341027

Curran proposed
Counseling-Learning
as a
holistic
approach to language learning:
James E. Alatis (1993). Strategic Interaction and Language Acquisition: Theory, Practice, and Research. Georgetown University
5 learning stages
(psychological process)
Dominance
(eminence)
Control
vs.
(communicative interaction)
Little & Sanders (1989:277)
Birth
Self-assertion
Separate
Existence
Adolescence
Independence
SSs don't know the target language and are completely dependent on the teacher.
Feelings of security and belonging are established.
SSs begin to use the new language with the aid of the teacher
(self assertion)
SSs use language more independently may begin to resist teacher's unasked advice. asserting his own identity.
Learners are functional
but still need help from
the teacher
SSs are able to express themselves,but may be aware of gaps in their knowledge

(Reversal)
~ SSs can continue their learning style without assistance.
~ They may act as counsellors
to less advanced SSs.
~ Functional independence
in the Target Language
(adult)
Security
Attention
Agression
Retention
Reflection
Discrimination
Assertion
"CLL provides opportunity for acquistion as well as learning,
it focuses on
function
as much as
form
it meets specific students' goles
and builds sound group dynamics while attending to affective
and individual needs at the same level
"

grammar-based
language-centered
task-based
student-centered
CLL:
Other methods:
"To be able to use the language not only correctly but also properly"
IJELT, Volume 2, Issue 2
Curran, A. Curran (1963).
Counseling, psychotherapy, and the unified person
. Journal of Religion and Health. January, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 95-111
Embryonic
or
(Psychological requirements)
Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2006. IJELT, Volume 2, Issue 2, p. 8
8 - 12 clients
one counselor per 3 clients
Ratio between the amount of SSs and counselors needed
(Wallace, 1982:104)
(helping agent)
(translator)
(La Forge, 1983)
Interaction between SSs is unpredictable in content
but it's always expected to involve
affective exchanges
(La Forge, 1971; 1974; 1975, 1983)
that in which
"the intellectual process alone
[is]
regarded as the-main intent of learning, to the neglect of involvement of the self"
he referred to it as an
"animal learning,"

in which learners are passive
and their involvement is limited
"
mechanized concept of man
."

* Introduced in the early 1970's
* Widespread during the 1980's
and 1990's.
* Created by
Charles Arthur Curran
(1972; 1976),
an Jesuit priest
a Professor of Psychology
a specialist in couseling
* Continued by
Paul G. la Forge

and others such as Taylor (1979)
who tested the approach
* Curren was influenced by Carl Rogers,
who developed the humanist
Person-centered therapy
Curran's views
Putative learning
Behaviorism
Against:
Paul La Forge
's views:
Language as a social-process:
"Learners deepen in intimacy
as the class becomes a
community of learners
.
The desire to be part of it, pushes learners
to keep pace with the learning of their peers."
"The group is community"
No textbook
No homework
SSs determine the aspects of language
they
want to address
(Sonsoles, 2011)
(racilitator
)
Paraphaser
Knower
Counselor
the one who knows the language
Clients
sit in a circle
Communication
more important than accuracy
(less emphasis on error correction)
Authentic language input
Principles
Motivation springs from the SS's interest in what is being communicated
CommunicativePrinciple
It is activities that involve
real communication
those which promote learning
Task Principle
Meaningful Principle
Activities in which language is used to carry out meaningful tasks promote learning
The learning process is built upon language that is meaningful for the learner
communicatively
whole person
Conclusion
In CLL, language-learning is not viewed
as an individual accomplishment
but as something that is achieved collaborately.

CLL contains some useful principles. Even though not appliable under all contexts, they can be modified so as to enrich the process of laguage learning
(Curran 1972: 58)
(Curran 1976:84).
P.Nagaraj (2009). "Application of Community Language Learning for Effective Teaching". ISSN 0974- 8741 http://www.mjal.org/Journal/Community.pdf
"True human learning
is both cognitive and affective
(
whole-person learning
)"
(Curran, 1972: 90).
(Curran, 1963)
(
Code Switching
)

1.
S
tells the counselor what he wants to communicate. He uses L1
2.
T
whispers to the
S

a translation into L2
3.
S
repeats the L2 translation to another learner (addressee)

SSs
may rehearse with the
T
privately
Counselor
is outside
(
the process goes on and on
)
6 clients
one counselor
per client
(
The learner determines
the type of conversation
)
4. The addressee who wants to respond
also asks his counselor for a translation.
5. Each conversation is recorded:
8. SSs reflect on their feelings on the language learning experience and share them
e
His character
calm
non-judgamental
warm
sympathetic
trustful
Client
Collaborator
Knowee
SSs' feelings are very important.
0. T explains what SSs will be doing
Learners create the learning experience, generating large amounts of
natural input
Interaction
Student
Student
Student
Teacher
Teacher
Student
encouraging
tone of voice
"Bridge between the familiar & unfamiliar"
If there should be an evaluation,
it must be integrative.

Self-evaluation should be encouraged.
focus on meaningful communication
focus on structure
(Alatis, James, 1994)
Tape recording
student-generated language
Transcriptions
T or S transcribe the
tape-recorded conversations for future activities
Open discussions
Reflection on experience
Reflective Listening
SSs relax and listen the recordings, transcriptions
Human Computer
T repeats after S.
SSs decide when to stop. They 'control' the computer
Free conversations
Focus on SS's feelings
Encourages SS's initiative
and responsibility for his own learning
Enhaces cooperation
Avoids competition
Anxiety-free environment
Includes the 4 skills

Teacher translator experience
(his fluency in L1 & L2)
Unplausible application in large groups and young learners
Lack of attention on pronunciation
Lack of systematic order
(aleatory grammatical topics)
Confidence
Willful involvement
Memory
Writing materials will be built during the course
6.
The recording is played and/or transcribed.


Their notes and transcriptiions are enough to home study
7. Teacher can write in the board elements of grammar, spelling, etc, and SSs are encouraged to ask about the meaning and usage.
Sonsoles Sánchez-Reyes Peñamaría, (2011).
Inglés. Complementos de formación disciplinar: Theory and practice in english language teaching.
Grao. Susan House. ISBN: 8499803539
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