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Community Language Learning (CLL)
Transcript of Community Language Learning (CLL)
according to Charles Curran (1976)
The student will learn a second language
in a nondefensive manner
being treated as a
Elements for non-defensive learning
Community Language Learning
Community Language Learning
(CLL) is a
based on the
SSs are free to report how their desires, frustations, etc...
Curran emphasized both the role of the learner as an individual and as a member of a group:
in Norman (2003:55)
Norman, Susan (2003).
Transforming Learning: Introducing SEAL Approaches
. Saffire Press. Society for Effective Affective Learning. ISBN: 1901564061
Paul G. La Forge (1975).
Research Profiles with Community Language Learning
. Issue 1 of Perspectives in counseling-learning monograph. Counseling-Learning Institutes.
Paul G. La Forge (1974).
Community Language Learning: Findings Based on Three Years of Research in Japan
(1971-1974). Educational Resources Information Center,
Paul G. La Forge (1983).
Time and Space with Community Language Learning
. JALT Journal. Issue 5.1. See http://jalt-publications.org/files/pdf-article/jj-5.1-art3.pdf
Curran, Charles Arthur (1976).
A comprehensive treatment of the theory behind CLL.
Apple River Press. Counseling-Learning in Second Languages.
Learning is thought to be reached through
Entire reliance upon inductive strategy of learning
Curran, Charles Arthur (1972).
Counseling-learning: A Whole-person Model for Education
. New York ; London : Grune and Stratton, Inc.
Colin Baker (1998). Encyclopedia of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education.. Sylvia Prys Jones. Multilingual Matters.
Springer (1973), Journal of Religion and Health. Vol. 12, No. 3, Jul.. Counseling - Learning: A Whole-Person Model for Education.
approach to language learning:
James E. Alatis (1993). Strategic Interaction and Language Acquisition: Theory, Practice, and Research. Georgetown University
5 learning stages
Little & Sanders (1989:277)
SSs don't know the target language and are completely dependent on the teacher.
Feelings of security and belonging are established.
SSs begin to use the new language with the aid of the teacher
SSs use language more independently may begin to resist teacher's unasked advice. asserting his own identity.
Learners are functional
but still need help from
SSs are able to express themselves,but may be aware of gaps in their knowledge
~ SSs can continue their learning style without assistance.
~ They may act as counsellors
to less advanced SSs.
~ Functional independence
in the Target Language
"CLL provides opportunity for acquistion as well as learning,
it focuses on
as much as
it meets specific students' goles
and builds sound group dynamics while attending to affective
and individual needs at the same level
"To be able to use the language not only correctly but also properly"
IJELT, Volume 2, Issue 2
Curran, A. Curran (1963).
Counseling, psychotherapy, and the unified person
. Journal of Religion and Health. January, Volume 2, Issue 2, pp 95-111
Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2006. IJELT, Volume 2, Issue 2, p. 8
8 - 12 clients
one counselor per 3 clients
Ratio between the amount of SSs and counselors needed
(La Forge, 1983)
Interaction between SSs is unpredictable in content
but it's always expected to involve
(La Forge, 1971; 1974; 1975, 1983)
that in which
"the intellectual process alone
regarded as the-main intent of learning, to the neglect of involvement of the self"
he referred to it as an
in which learners are passive
and their involvement is limited
mechanized concept of man
* Introduced in the early 1970's
* Widespread during the 1980's
* Created by
Charles Arthur Curran
an Jesuit priest
a Professor of Psychology
a specialist in couseling
* Continued by
Paul G. la Forge
and others such as Taylor (1979)
who tested the approach
* Curren was influenced by Carl Rogers,
who developed the humanist
Paul La Forge
Language as a social-process:
"Learners deepen in intimacy
as the class becomes a
community of learners
The desire to be part of it, pushes learners
to keep pace with the learning of their peers."
"The group is community"
SSs determine the aspects of language
want to address
the one who knows the language
sit in a circle
more important than accuracy
(less emphasis on error correction)
Authentic language input
Motivation springs from the SS's interest in what is being communicated
It is activities that involve
those which promote learning
Activities in which language is used to carry out meaningful tasks promote learning
The learning process is built upon language that is meaningful for the learner
In CLL, language-learning is not viewed
as an individual accomplishment
but as something that is achieved collaborately.
CLL contains some useful principles. Even though not appliable under all contexts, they can be modified so as to enrich the process of laguage learning
(Curran 1972: 58)
P.Nagaraj (2009). "Application of Community Language Learning for Effective Teaching". ISSN 0974- 8741 http://www.mjal.org/Journal/Community.pdf
"True human learning
is both cognitive and affective
(Curran, 1972: 90).
tells the counselor what he wants to communicate. He uses L1
whispers to the
a translation into L2
repeats the L2 translation to another learner (addressee)
may rehearse with the
the process goes on and on
The learner determines
the type of conversation
4. The addressee who wants to respond
also asks his counselor for a translation.
5. Each conversation is recorded:
8. SSs reflect on their feelings on the language learning experience and share them
SSs' feelings are very important.
0. T explains what SSs will be doing
Learners create the learning experience, generating large amounts of
tone of voice
"Bridge between the familiar & unfamiliar"
If there should be an evaluation,
it must be integrative.
Self-evaluation should be encouraged.
focus on meaningful communication
focus on structure
(Alatis, James, 1994)
T or S transcribe the
tape-recorded conversations for future activities
Reflection on experience
SSs relax and listen the recordings, transcriptions
T repeats after S.
SSs decide when to stop. They 'control' the computer
Focus on SS's feelings
Encourages SS's initiative
and responsibility for his own learning
Includes the 4 skills
Teacher translator experience
(his fluency in L1 & L2)
Unplausible application in large groups and young learners
Lack of attention on pronunciation
Lack of systematic order
(aleatory grammatical topics)
Writing materials will be built during the course
The recording is played and/or transcribed.
Their notes and transcriptiions are enough to home study
7. Teacher can write in the board elements of grammar, spelling, etc, and SSs are encouraged to ask about the meaning and usage.
Sonsoles Sánchez-Reyes Peñamaría, (2011).
Inglés. Complementos de formación disciplinar: Theory and practice in english language teaching.
Grao. Susan House. ISBN: 8499803539