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Transcript of Phonology!
Phonology concerns itself with the ways in which languages make use of sounds to distinguish words from each other.
Is the basis for further work in morphology, syntax, discourse, and orthography design.
Analyzes the sound patterns of a particular language by determining which phonetic sounds are significant, and explaining how these sounds are interpreted by the native speaker.
A phoneme may consist of several phonetically distinct articulations, which are regarded as identical by native speakers, since one articulation may be substituted for another without any change of meaning. Thus /p/ and /b/ are separate phonemes in English because they distinguish such words as pet and bet, whereas the light and dark /l/ sounds in little are not separate phonemes since they may be transposed without changing meaning.
BILABIALS: (Made the two lips .) Say words such as "pie, buy, my" and note how the lips come together for the first sound in each of these woeds.
Manner of articulation
voiced; those produced without vocal cord vibration are voiceless. Table 1
lists the voiced and voiceless consonants of English. The letters in [ ] are the
phonetic symbols for the sounds.
AFFRICATE: sound produced with full stoppage of the airstream followed immediately by constriction.
ALLOPHONE: non-distinctive phonetic variant of a phoneme.
ALVEO - PALATAL sound produced at the hard palate just behind the alveolar ridge.
ALVEOLAR: sound produced at the alveolar ridge, the bony ridge behind the teeth.
ASPIRATED: consonant sound released with a puff of air.
ASSIMILATION RULE: phonological rule that makes a sound similar to a nearby
sound. e.g., palatalization.
BACK VOWEL: vowel produced with the back of the tongue raised toward the soft palate.
BILABIAL: sound produced with constriction or closure of the lips.
FRICATIVE: sound produced with constriction of the airstream, producing friction.
FRONT VOWEL: vowel produced with the front of the tongue raised toward the hard palate.
GLOTTAL: sound produced by constricting or stopping the airstream at the vocal folds.
INTERDENTAL: sound produced with the tongue protruding between theteeth.
LABIODENTAL: sound produced with constriction between the bottom lip and top teeth.
MANNER OF ARTICULATION: the kind of closure or constriction used in making a consonant sound.
PHONOLOGY: the study of the ways in which a given language shapes sounds into distinctive categories of perception and of its rules of pronunciation.
PLACE OF ARTICULATION: the area in the mouth at which the consonantal closure or constriction occurs.
VELAR: sound produced with constriction at the soft palate.
VOICED: sound produced with the vocal folds vibrating.
VOICELESS: sound produced with the vocal folds not vibrating.
Places of articulaton
LABIODENTALS: Lower lip and upper front teeth.) most people when saying words such as "fie, vie" raise the lower lip until it nearly touches the upper front teeth.
DENTAL: (Tongue tip or blade and upper front teeth.) Say the words "thigh, thy." some people have the tip of the tongue protruding below the upper front teeth; others have it close behing the upper front teeth.
ALVEOLAR: (Tongue tip or blade and the alveolar ridge.) again there are two posibilities in English, and you should find out which you use. You may pronounce words such as "tie, die, night, sigh, zeal, lie." using the teeth of the tongue or the blade of the tongue.
RETROFLEX: (tip of the tongue and the back of the alveolar ridge.) Many speakers of English do not use retroflex sounds at all. But for some, retroflex sounds oscur initially in woeds such as "rue, row, ray." Note the positons of the tip of your tongue in these words
VELAR: (back of the tongue and soft palate.) The consonant that have the farthets back place of articulation in Englis are those that ocuur at the end of "hack, hag, hang." in all these sound the back of the tongue is raised so that it touches the velum.
PALATAL:(front of the tongue and hard palate.) Say the word "you" veru slowly so that you can isolate the consonant at the begining. if you say this consonant by itslelf you shuld be able to feel that the front of the tongue is raised yowars the hard palate
PALATO - ALVEOLAR: (Tangue blade and the back of the alveolar ridge.) Say words such as "shy, she,show." During the consonant the tip of your tongue may be down behind the lower front teeth, or it may be up near the alveolar ridge, but the blade of the tongue is always close to the back part of the alveolar ridge.
by [b] pie [p]
vie [v] fie [f]
thy  thigh [T]
die [d] tie [t]
zip [z] sip [s]
AFFRICATIVE: which begins like a plosive, but this releases into a fricative rather than having a separate release of its own. The English letters "ch" and "j" represent affricates. Affricates are quite common around the world, though less common than fricatives.
FRICATIVES: (constriction of the airstream in the oral cavity producing turbulence and noise, as in [f], [v]);
[f] fie [v] vie
[T] thigh [D] thy
[s] Sue [z] zoo
[S] shoe [Z] jus (au jus)
Manner of articulation: the various congurations produced by positioning the lips, tongue, velum, and glottis in diﬀerent ways. Stops, Fricatives, Aﬀricates, approximant.
APPROXIMANT:Approximants are sounds made by narrowing the oral cavity but not enough to cause turbulence in the airstream; the airstream is said to be smooth. The
beginning sounds of lye and rye are approximants. The narrowest point in the airstream is wider in approximants than in fricatives, but is not as wide as it is in vowels.
high front vowel [i] [j] palatal approximant
high back vowel [u] [w] labio-velar approximant
rhotic vowel [´’] [r] rhotic approximant
[m] Pam clammy mat
[n] pan clannish Nat
[N] pang clingy ----
NASAL STOP: if the air is stopped in the oral cabity but the soft palata is down so that it can go out through the nose; the sound produced is a nasal estop.
ORAL STOP: If in addiction to the arculatory closure in the month, the soft palate is raised so that the nasal tract is blocked off , them the airstream will be completely obstructed.
There are two possible types of stop
Erick Edenilson Aguilar Rivera 31-3598-2011