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Respiratory System

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Meili So

on 26 April 2015

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Transcript of Respiratory System

Circulatory system
oxygen goes to the heart
sent out from the heart in blood to other parts of the body
heart pumping out oxygen is the relationship between the respiratory & circulatory system
Skeletal system
the ribs & sternum protect the lungs
when the body falls or gets injured the lungs are still protected

Nervous System
brain sends messages down to the lungs & diaphragm through nerves to breathe in oxygen
the nerves branch out from the spinal cord throughout the whole body so the brain can tell the body what to do
Digestive System
digestive system uses the mouth & pharynx to chew & shallow food
respiratory system uses the mouth & pharynx to breathe in oxygen
sends it to the lungs, so that the oxygen goes into the blood stream
Muscular System
oxygen in the lungs is transported to the heart &
then throughout the body
every cell in the body needs oxygen
when the blood goes in the muscles, the oxygen goes into
the muscle cells
helps mitochondria make energy for the cells to
keep living
Respiratory System

Nisha, Danise, Manijeh, and Meili
1. Nasal Cavity
2. Pharynx
3. Larynx
4.Upper Trachea
6. Bronchi
Relation TO
OTher Body Systems
Importance To dental
it`s our job as dental hygienist to educate our clients on practicing good oral hygiene so that bacteria & plaque buildup is reduced or prevented
good respiratory health for oral hygiene include the following:
brush your teeth twice a day
floss to remove dental plaque
use an antimicrobial rinse

Relationship To Oral
if periodontal disease is not treated, bacteria can build up & inflame the airways
good oral hygiene prevents breathing problems such as:
bronchitis: inflammation of the bronchial tubes
pneumonia: inflammation of the air sacs in one or both lungs

Associated to The Respiratory System
virus, bacteria,smoke, dust, pollution
irritated bronchi
enlarged mucous membrane lining
more mucus
lowered cilia transport of mucus
reduced bronchi diameter
inherited, triggered
minor airways inflammation
asthmatic attack = airway muscle inflammation worsen, stiffen & shrink
extra production of mucus
tight airway
persistent coughs over 2 weeks with blood or mucus
sweating at night
decrease in appetite & weight
consistent fatigue
system Organs
Respiratory system consists of two parts:
upper respiratory tract
: all organs located outside the chest cavity ( nose, nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx & upper trachea) (Herlihy, 2010)

lower respiratory tract
: all organs inside the chest cavity (lower trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli, pleural membrane & muscles ) (Herlihy, 2010)
Purpose of
Respiratory System
Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
constant cough
sore throat
small fever
congested nose & sinus
stiff chest
body soreness
acute or chronic
difficult ventilation
symptoms of An
Asthma Attack
divided into right & left halves, the nasal septum is made of bone & cartilage
air enters the nose by openings called : nostrils or nares
function is to warm & moisten air with the blood vessels in the nasal cavity & clean the air
has receptors cells which enable us to smell
hair & mucous in the nasal cavity works a filtering mechanisms to remove inhaled dust & large particles from entering the lungs (Herlihy, 2010)
is the throat
made of cartilage, muscles & ligaments
starts from the base of the skull to the C6
consists of the nasopharynx, oropharynx & laryngopharnyx
passageway when breathing & transfers air to the lower respiratory system
oropharynx & laryngopharnyx are part of the digestive & respiratory system, that sends air to the lungs or food towards the esophagus (Herlihy, 2010)
this system works closely with circulatory system to:
deliver oxygen to every single cell in the body
supply oxygenated blood (Herlihy, 2010)
regulate the PH of the blood (Herlihy, 2010).
(How stuff works, 2008)
( Fairview, 2015)
(Wikipedia, 2015)
also called the voice box for sounds & speaking
located between pharynx & trachea
passageway for air & breathing
creates voice by vibrating vocal cords
works as a defense mechanism to prevent food & foreign objects from entering other respiratory structures (Herlihy, 2010)
(STCC, 2011)
also called the windpipe
consist of two parts, the right & left bronchi
extends from the larynx down to thoracic cavity
passageway for air to right and left bronchus (Herlihy, 2010)
( Boundless, 2015)
mycobacterium tuberculosis
affects the lungs
latent or active
active = contagious (airborne)
Dental Hygiene Precautions
can spread through blood to mandible or maxillary bones = tuberculous lesions on oral mucous membrane
latent tuberculosis:
1. treatable, not infectious
2. USE standard infection control precautions
active tuberculosis:
1. remove client from exposure to other clients & staffs
2. immediately provide a mask for them to wear
3. determine seriousness of their dental health
4. refer for medical help
5. defer all dental treatment until no longer contagious
are the initial formation of the bronchial tree (branches) extending from the trachea
composed of c-shaped cartilage; this allows air to pass in & out of the lungs without difficulty
as the bronchi extend further into the lungs, they become very thin & eventually no cartilage is apparent
function is to allow airflow in & out of the thoracic cavity (Herlihy, 2010)
bronchi continue to divide into narrower tubes & extend far into the lungs
divided tubes are bronchioles
composed of smooth muscle
function of the smooth muscle is to allow contraction of the bronchioles, which allow us to inhale & exhale
opening in the bronchioles is known as bronchiolar lumen, therefore the contractions of the smooth muscle will result in two situations:

smooth muscle in bronchiolar lumen is restricted = decrease airflow
smooth muscle in bronchiolar lumen is relaxed = increase airflow (Herlihy, 2010)
smoking, pollution, alpha 1-antitrypsin failure
chronic bronchitis = airway blockage
emphysema = over inflated lungs
difficult ventilation
constant cough
thick mucus
chest discomfort
bloated ankles
decreased weight
chest tighten
severe difficult ventilation
lips & fingers white - blue
declination of life
Dental Hygiene Precautions
green, yellow & red zone
green zone = can treat
yellow zone = need permission from doctor
patient must have inhaler
acute asthmatic attack:
1. sit patient up straight
2. advise inhalation from puffer, follow labeled instructions
3. provide oxygen
4. asthmatic inclination, offer epinephrine (correct dosage)
5. call 911
Cystic Fibrosis
inherited, CF gene
damage lungs = lung failure
affects epithelial cells in the lungs
CF gene makes abnormal CFTR protein = thick, tacky mucus
mucus retain trapped bacterium & unable to clear = infection
constant cough with thick mucus
difficult ventilation
numerous chest infections
unusual bowel
decreased weight
salty perspiration
men infertile, women lowered fertility
(MedlinePlus, n.d.)
(The Best Health Blog, 2014)
(Times, 2013)
(dreamstime, n.d.)
(dreamstime, n.d.)
(ANTRANIK, 2011)
5. Lower Trachea
classified as an upper & lower portion because it extends from the larynx to the lungs
located superior to the esophagus
split into two tubes at a point called carina; one tube extends into the right lung, the other into the left lung
composed of strong cartilage, which allows this structure to remain firm
function is to behave as a windpipe, allowing oxygen to flow in & out of the lungs (Herlihy, 2010)
(ANTRANIK, 2011)
8. Alveoli
bronchioles divide into small grape-like structures known as alveoli ducts
located at the end of the respiratory passage & pulmonary capillaries surround them
function is to exchange oxygen & carbon dioxide across the alveolar-pulmonary capillary (Herlihy, 2014)
diffusion of oxygen & carbon dioxide occurs in 2 ways:
1. oxygen from air we breathed into our lungs is present in the alveoli & is diffused into blood
2. carbon dioxide present in blood is diffused into the alveoli to be pumped back out of our respiratory system through our nose into the air
(Herlihy, 2010)

9. Right/Left Lung
located in the pleural cavity & both lungs are divided into lobes
right lung consists of 3 lobes & the left lung consists of 2 lubes due to the positioning of the heart
amount of air that can be present in a person while inhaling depends on the persons' body built (Herlihy, 2010)
(ANTRANIK, 2011)
(ANTRANIK, 2011)
Asthma (2010). In College of Dental Hygienists of Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.cdho.org/Advisories/CDHO_Advisory_Asthma.pdf

Chronic Bronchitis (n.d.). In MedlinePlus. Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/chronicbronchitis.html

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (2010). In College of Dental Hygienists of Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.cdho.org/Advisories/CDHO_Advisory_Chronic_Obstructive_Pulmonary_Disease.pdf

Connections With Other Systems (2013). Retrieved from http://hrsbstaff.ednet.ns.ca/bmurphy/student/respiratory_system.htm

Cross section images and Stock Photos. (n.d.). In PHOTOSEARCH. Retrieved from http://www.fotosearch.com/photos-images/cross-section.html

Cystic fibrosis (n.d.). In dreamstime. Retrieved from http://www.dreamstime.com/royalty-free-stock-photo-cystic-fibrosis-medical-illustration-symptoms-image31724695

Cystic Fibrosis (2015). In KidsHealth. Retrieved from http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/digestive/cf.html#

Disease Medical Condition Tuberculosis (2013). In College of Dental Hygienists of Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.cdho.org/Advisories/CDHO_Factsheet_Tuberculosis.pdf

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Herlihy, B. (2010). The human body in health and illness, 4th ed., Missouri: Saunders Elsvier

Hill, M. (n.d.). Disorders of the Respiratory System. In Student Online Learning Center. Retrieved from http://www.mhhe.com/biosci/ap/foxhumphys/student/olc/res-reading2.html

McIntosh, J. (2014). What is bronchitis? What causes bronchitis?. In MNT. Retrieved from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/8888.php

Respiratory Disease & Oral Health (2014). In United Concordia Dental. Retrieved from https://www.unitedconcordia.com/dental-insurance/dental/conditions/respiratory-disease-oral-health/

Times, E. (2013). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease . In Pinterest. Retrieved from http://www.earthtimes.org/newsimage/tai-chi-therapy-copd_29812.jpg

Tuberculosis (n.d.). In dreamstime. Retrieved from http://www.informante.web.na/sites/default/files/tuberculosis-28061857.jpg

Tuberculosis, Latent or Active (2010). In College of Dental Hygienists of Ontario. Retrieved from http://www.cdho.org/Advisories/CDHO_Advisory_Tuberculosis_Latent_or_Active.pdf

What Is Cystic Fibrosis? (n.d.). In Cystic Fibrosis Canada. Retrieved from http://www.cysticfibrosis.ca/about-cf/what-is-cystic-fibrosis/

Why You Need Respiratory Protection. (2015). In Fairview . Retrieved from http://www.fairview.org/healthlibrary/Article/85635

Your Respiratory System. (2008). In Discovery Kids. Retrieved on from http://discoverykids.com/articles/your-respiratory-system/
respiratory system is the most important factor in the human body
body cells need oxygen in order to survive
breathing is involuntary
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