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Relative Clauses

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by

Tim Warre

on 5 February 2015

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Transcript of Relative Clauses

Relative Clauses
Defining relative clauses
What do defining relative clauses do?
Practice
1.
Think of five famous people, places or objects and write their names down. Keep them hidden from the other students.
2.
Now use sentences to describe each one that will help your partner guess who you are talking about.
3.
Use the following to help you start your sentences and select the appropriate relative pronoun from below.

It’s someone . . . . .
It’s a place . . .
It’s a thing . . ..

Complete the Sentences
1. That's the man ______ dog keeps following me home.
2. It was almost dark ______ Sam got here.
3. Isn't that the expedition _____ you wanted to go on?
4. If I ever go back to the place _____ I was born, I'll let you know.
5. Is that the man _____ bought your car?
Imagine you are a tree surgeon. Your job is to maintain the forest by getting rid of any diseased or dead trees. On your first day your boss tells you:
Look at the example sentences. What is IMPLIED in each sentence? Is there a difference in meaning between the two?

All of the cats, which pooed on the bed, will be punished.
So we have two types of relative clauses:
which/who/whose/when/where
whose
when
which
where
who
Possession -
Places -
People -
Times -
Objects/things -
whose
where
who
when
which
In which sentences can you use "that"?
3 & 5
/that
/that
The sentences you just looked at all contain
“Defining relative clauses”

1. Add extra information.
2. Specify/Identify the thing we are referring to.
1. That's the boy
who/that
you kissed at the party.
2. Those students
that/who
are coming on the field trip need to pay €50.
3. The car
which/that
I want to buy costs €20,000.
4. Did you like the wine
that/which
we drank last night?
5. He's the author
who/that
wrote my favorite book.
In which of the above sentences can we
omit
the relative pronoun?
You don't need the relative pronoun (who/that etc.) if it is the object of the sentence.
A simpler way: If the relative pronoun is followed by a
pronoun
or a
noun
you CAN omit it.
This is the man
(that/who)

the hooligans
beat up.
This is the gun
(which/that)

he
used to kill the zombie.
places - where
people - who/that
objects/things - which/that
All of the trees, which are 100 years old, must be chopped down.
How many trees does he want you to cut down?
A) All of them B) Some of them.
What if he said:

All of the trees which are 100 years old must be chopped down.
How many trees does he want you to shop down?
A) All of them B) Some of them
Only the ones that are 100 years old.
I sent my girlfriend, who likes flowers, roses on valentine's day.
I sent my girlfriend who likes flowers roses on valentine's day.
(I sent my girlfriend who likes jewellery a diamond ring.)
All of the cats which pooed on the bed will be punished.
(all of them did it, so all will be punished)
(not all of them did it, only the ones who did will be punished)
Defining relative clauses:
All of the trees
which/that
are 100 years old must be cut down.
Non defining relative clauses:
All of the trees,
which
are 100 years old, must be cut down.
Non defining relative clauses

are used

to add information.
Use:
Defining relative clauses

specify or identify the thing we are referring to.
Look at these examples, are they defining or non-defining?
The children
who
you've been talking to all go to the same school.
Have you still got the book
which
I lent you?
defining!
What about these ones:
My PE teacher,
who
was an Olympic champion, says exercise is good for you
Mrs Smith,
who
you met on the train, is a nurse.
My house,
which
is over there, has a beautiful garden.
non-defining
What difference can you see between the two types?

Commas around the clause
In which ones could you replace the pronoun with "that"?
Only in defining!
Use of English part 2 trick: If the missing word is part of a relative clause and there is a comma before the space, the answer
won't be
"that".
Who or whom?
Whom is a dying word.
Whom
In the past we used whom a lot more, in sentences like this:

That is the boy
whom
you kissed at the party.
She's the girl
whom
I'm going to marry.

But now "who" has replaced it and when you use it in this context it sounds old-fashioned.
However, "whom" still has some life in it. We still use it in the following phrases:
There was a big group protesters outside the presidents house,
all of whom
were shouting angry slogans.
There was a big group protesters outside the presidents house,
some of whom
were carrying weapons.
Only two students came to the class,
neither of whom
had done the homework.
My two best friends came to visit me,
both of whom
brought me presents from England.
"Whom" is often used next to a preposition:
This is the person
with whom
I live. (formal)
This is the person
who
I live
with
. (less formal)
He's the person
Full transcript