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Five Schools of Behaviorism

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Seema Mir

on 4 June 2014

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Transcript of Five Schools of Behaviorism

social learning theory:
cognitive-behavioral approach that strongly emphasizes the importance of observational learning and cognitive variables in explaining human behavior
reciprocal determinism:
environmental events, observable behavior, and "person variables" are seen as having a reciprocal influence on each other
*
focuses on broad behavior patterns&emphasizes the distinction between learning and performance
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does not dismiss introspective experiences
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claimed Watson's rejection of unobservable events scientifically unsound, still opposed introspection
neobehaviorism:
brand of behaviorism that utilizes intervening variables, in the form of hypothesized physiological processes, to help explain behavior
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theory pure S-R assumed that learning consists of establishment of connections between specific stimuli and specific responses

*
analyze behavior on a broader level
cognitive behaviorism:
utilizes intervening variables, usually in the form of hypothesized cognitive processes, to help explain behavior
cognitive map:
mental representation of one's spatial surrounding; intervening variable
latent learning:
learning occurs despite the absence of any observable indication of learning and only becomes apparent under a different set of conditions
Five Schools of Behaviorism
Methodological Behaviorism:
psychologists should study only those behaviors that can be directly observed
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Watson believed all behavior is essentially reflexive& that learning involves the development of a simple connection between an environmental event& a specific behavior
S-R Theory:
learning is believed to involve the establishment of a connection between a specific stimulus (S) and a specific response (R)
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nature vs nurture- believed everything is learned

Watson's
Methodological
Behaviorism

Hull's
Neobehaviorism
Skinner's
radical
behaviorism

bandrura's
social
learning
theory

Tolman's
cognitive
behaviorism
radical behaviorism:
emphasizes influence of environment on observable (overt) behavior, rejects the use of internal events to explain behavior, and views thoughts and feelings as behaviors that need to be explained
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internal events unreliable in the way they are labeled, the order in which they occur, no way to change internal events, explanations for behavior often pseudo-explanations
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focused on environmental consequences of behavior as cause of observable behavior and internal events
countercontrol:
deliberate manipulation of environmental events to alter their impact on our behavior
behavior analysis:
behavioral science that grew out of Skinner's philosophy of radical behaviorism; research principles of operant conditioning
applied behavior analysis:
basic principles of behavior are applied to solving real-world issues
*

empiricist but accepting of effects of heredity on behavior
*
disagreed with Tolman about using internal events to explain behavior, agreed in emphasizing molar (broader) approach
Full transcript