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Five Schools of Behaviorism
Transcript of Five Schools of Behaviorism
cognitive-behavioral approach that strongly emphasizes the importance of observational learning and cognitive variables in explaining human behavior
environmental events, observable behavior, and "person variables" are seen as having a reciprocal influence on each other
focuses on broad behavior patterns&emphasizes the distinction between learning and performance
does not dismiss introspective experiences
claimed Watson's rejection of unobservable events scientifically unsound, still opposed introspection
brand of behaviorism that utilizes intervening variables, in the form of hypothesized physiological processes, to help explain behavior
theory pure S-R assumed that learning consists of establishment of connections between specific stimuli and specific responses
analyze behavior on a broader level
utilizes intervening variables, usually in the form of hypothesized cognitive processes, to help explain behavior
mental representation of one's spatial surrounding; intervening variable
learning occurs despite the absence of any observable indication of learning and only becomes apparent under a different set of conditions
Five Schools of Behaviorism
psychologists should study only those behaviors that can be directly observed
Watson believed all behavior is essentially reflexive& that learning involves the development of a simple connection between an environmental event& a specific behavior
learning is believed to involve the establishment of a connection between a specific stimulus (S) and a specific response (R)
nature vs nurture- believed everything is learned
emphasizes influence of environment on observable (overt) behavior, rejects the use of internal events to explain behavior, and views thoughts and feelings as behaviors that need to be explained
internal events unreliable in the way they are labeled, the order in which they occur, no way to change internal events, explanations for behavior often pseudo-explanations
focused on environmental consequences of behavior as cause of observable behavior and internal events
deliberate manipulation of environmental events to alter their impact on our behavior
behavioral science that grew out of Skinner's philosophy of radical behaviorism; research principles of operant conditioning
applied behavior analysis:
basic principles of behavior are applied to solving real-world issues
empiricist but accepting of effects of heredity on behavior
disagreed with Tolman about using internal events to explain behavior, agreed in emphasizing molar (broader) approach