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The Rock Cycle
Transcript of The Rock Cycle
2. Next are the Composite Volcanoes.They are made mostly of layers of ash and lava. These volcanoes are known for forming some of the worlds largest and most well known mountains. Some examples of Composite Volcanoes are Mt. Hood , Mt. St. Helen's and Mount Fuji.
3. Last of the three types of Volcanoes are the Cinder Cone Volcanoes. Cinder Cone Volcanoes are known for being the simplest kind of volcanoes. They are also the first kind of volcanoes that you learn about in elementary school. They can rise over 1000 feet tall. And many Cinder Volcanoes are found in Western North America. Three Types of Volcanoes Now that you have all of the basics, you are ready to learn how the rock cycle works. You may think that the rock you are looking at is never going to change, but it has changed many of times over the 4.6 billion years the earth has been here. Let's take a look at the rock cycle! Examples of Metamorphic, Igneous, and Sedimentary Metamorphic- can be marble
Uses of marble- floors, and tile in bathroom.
Granite can be used for counter tops, monuments, tombstones, and many more.
Sand stone has many outdoors purposes such as gates, porches, and outdoor fire places. BIOS- Scientists use models to understand
difficult concepts especially space and
deep time Scientists use models in science to understand
difficult concepts. It's not easy to remember 50 years
ago, let alone 4.6 BILLION years ago! Scientists use
timelines and other types of models to give us a basic
idea of what it was like back then. Also, we can't even BEGIN to imagine how big the earth is, let alone all the planets and even the whole universe. There are 3 different types of models that can be used for this. The first is a physical model, which is able to be touched and it is 3D. A mental model is a picture or diagram on a piece of paper. A mathematical model is a series of formulas entered into a computer to simulate something that we can't study in real life. Models can be used because either what we want to study is too dangerous to study or it is impossible. By: Ben Anenberg, Connor Creaney, Anthony Raimondo, Alex Rosania, Marta Fisher and Sydnie Simons Review Words Weathering- When exposed rocks undergo changes in character and break down from weather. Erosion- The process by which earth’s surfaces are worn away by rain water, glaciers, or waves. Sediment- Material that settles to the bottom of a liquid, (ex. Pond, lake, river) Sediment two- Material like gravel, sand, mud, or lime that is easily moved by water or sand. Compaction- the packing of sedimentary grains from the weight of sediment and other matter above Deposition- the settling of materials after being moved by water or wind or other natural forces. Metamorphism- Alteration of the minerals and textures of a rock by changes in temperature and pressure. Pressure- the force per unit exerted upon an object Transportation- The process that carries sediment or other materials Igneous rock- Any form of rock that forms during the cooling of magma. Extrusive Igneous rock- Igneous rock that forms at earth’s surface most of the time from volcanoes. Cooling of extrusive rocks happens fast, which gives crystals less time to form. Intrusive Igneous- This is the second form of igneous rock it forms from the cooling and solidification from magma. Intrusive igneous rock cools very slowly, which gives crystals more time to form. The Rock Cycle • Igneous- are formed from the solidification of molten rock material.
• Sedimentary- are formed by the accumulation of sediments.
• Metamorphic- have been modified by heat, pressure and chemical process usually while buried deep below Earth's surface. Exposure to these extreme conditions has altered the mineralogy, texture and chemical composition of the rocks Heat and Pressure Melting Cooling Weather and Erosion Compacting and Cementing 3 Types of Rocks Heat and pressure cause rocks to change. The movements of the crust pull the rocks under the surface. The temperatures increase and the heat under the rocks surface causes the rocks to melt and change its rock type. Sometimes before the melting point of the rock is reached, it can undergo changes that change it into another rock type without completely melting it. In other cases, the pressure causes by other rocks on the surface can cause the rocks under the surface to change. This kind of change is from the rising temperature and is called metamorphism. This type of rock would be called a metamorphic rock. The temperatures that are required to melt rocks are generally only found in the deep parts of the center of the earth. The movements of the crust pull the rocks down and they get hotter and reach their melting point. It takes around 600 to 1300 degrees Celsius to melt a rock, in which case it turns into magma. Magma vs Lava. Any rock that forms during the cooling of magma is called an igneous rock. Magma explodes out of a volcano and turns into lava. The lava cools quickly on the earths surface. Rocks that are formed from the cooling of lava are called extrusive igneous rock. It is also possible for the magma to get pushed up to the surface, but it will cool at a much slower rate. This is called intrusive igneous rock. Magma- is molten material beneath the earths crust. It often collects in a special chamber beneath the volcano. Lava- is the molten rock that flows from the volcano. Lava contains many elements such as phosphorus, manganese, and potassium. The Rock Cycle Rocks are exposed to wind and other elements which wear the rocks down. The resulting pieces are called sediment rock. It is transported by wind and water and ends up far away from where it started. Over time, sediment rock accumulates in oceans, lakes, and valleys. It builds up in layers and weights down the material under it. The weight from the rocks on the top layer presses the particles under it together. Water passes through the spaces between the particles and cements them together. This is called sedimentary rock. The rock cycle is an extremely important system. Without it, the magma inside the earth wouldn't be able to cool, and that would cause addition problems. This is an example of a metamorphic rock. They often have ribbon-like layers and may have shiny crystals, formed by minerals growing slowly over time, on their surface. Metamorphic Rocks Magma Magma is found inside of the earth, commonly, it is mistaken with lava. The difference between the two is that magma is inside the earth and lava is outside of the earth, on the surface, or crust. Lava The rocks that are
going to form by
this cooling lava are
igneous rock. Sediment Pieces Sediment is particles
of sand, shells,
pebbles, and other
material. Sedimentary Rocks Sedimentary rock is fairly soft and may break or crumble. You can often see sand, pebbles, or stones in the rock. It is usually the only type that contains fossils. This is a diagram to further explain the shape and the way that shield volcanoes act. They have sides that are gradual sides. The lava also flows very slowly when compared to other forms of volcanoes. Shield Volcano Diagram Composite Volcano Diagram This diagram shows what the inside of a composite volcano would look like if it was sliced in half. As you can see it is made up of multiple layers of ash and hardened lava. Pillow lava- is lava that gets it name from the pillow like shape. This type of lava is formed from underwater lava flows or lava that has came into the water from land. Models like this one (this is of a gene) are used to study things we can't see or is too dangerous to study in real life. A popular science model that is used is the model for the solar system. We can't actually study the sun so a model helps us get a basic understanding of it. The cinders of the cinder cone volcano can more easily be explained as small fragments of ashes. Models of the Rock Cycle We hope you have enjoyed learning about the rock cycle. If you have any questions for us, now is the time to ask!