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Transcript of Learning Theories
Note taking is only a small part in learning
By introducing a schemata, the students can make connections and remember the vocabulary, even after a short period of time. Radical Behaviorism Strengths:
heavy use in classroom
many people know about this theory
lends itself to many opportunitites
design of behavior modification can cause large impact (ex: Moving from primary reinforcer to conditioned reinforcer)
Can have lasting negative effects when used with negative reinforcement (ex: decreased self esteem)
Needs to be paired with novelty
Reliance of extrinsic motivation Cognitive & Knowledge Development Biological Bases of Learning & Memory Examples and difficulties attributed to biological evolution:
Language acquisition/ transfer
Implication of sociobiology and evolutionary psychology (ex: Gay student being teased by students that had been taught that being gay was wrong. Principal 4 of racial cooperation as applied to sexuality)
"Talent" vs. Practice
special needs people
older people having a hard time adapting and learning due to brain function and activity
Adaptive mechanism (ex: fear)
Competition Gagne's Theory of Instruction Gagne's 5 domains for learning: verbal, intellectual, attitudes, motor skills, cognitive strategies
The majority of class discussion revolved around higher education and the difficulties we have all experience with professors who do not follow Gagne's theory of instruction. When analyzing why that would be the case, I realized many instructors (not Dr. McGee) assume that their knowledge is most valuable and instruction should be provided by the student.The professors seem to lean away from the 9 steps of instruction and toward a more self discovery approach. I can think of at least 5 terrible college classes in which the professor expected us to "be mature" and learn on our own (or by osmosis and their sheer presence). When I teach my seventh graders I have to prepare them for this hands-off approach and give them independent learning strategies so that they will feel less inadequate and more well prepared. Psychology of Learning for Instruction- Marcy P. Driscoll Psychological Learning Theories: Class Discussion Themes Cognitive Information Processing Situated Cognition Interactional Theories of Cognitive Development Motivational & Self-Regulating In Learning Constructivism Connectivism Carolyn Gomez Role of chunking, rehearsal, encoding into memory
being able to find meaning through process
Use of CIP in school
repeating content, singing songs, learning languages, memorizing content, vocabulary
Transfer to long term memory
memorizing names Scenario: Jotting down of vocabulary at beginning of class and then a pop-quiz at the end of the day yields poor results from students. What is the problem? Examples of situated cognition in the field: Social and situated activity- Robotics conference,
Lived practices, apprenticeship- student teaching, on the job learning, hands-on experiments led by mentor
Legitimate peripheral participation- career readiness courses Social Knowledge Logical- Mathematical Knowledge Physical Knowledge Assimilating to new cultures: ex. Holidays, language
Social cues, morals, religion, heritage
Improving counseling with relating social knowledge to patient
Behavior (positive and negative) as a response to adapting to sociocultural norms Young children learning the world around them with curiosity and discovery
Early educations, formal and informal
Learning something new like a sport Technology and other higher level or abstract content knowledge
Learning how to orient oneself in a new place/ city What would Vygotsky and Bruner say about teaching a 5 year old how to tell time? Vygotsky Bruner Both Zone of Proximal Development: teach the child within their reach
Provide scaffolding support and gradually remove it
Internalization of socially-mediated understanding Learning produces development
Thinking, conceptual knowledge
Activity relevant to context Inquiry and problem solving
Constructing modes of representation
Enactive, iconic, symbolic
Concrete ideas eventually become symbolic understanding My Personal ARCS Story:
I have tried to lose weight since I was a teenager but have never been successful in getting it off and keeping it off.
Attention: My sister Elizabeth recently lost 20 lbs. by adopting a plant based diet she got into by watching the movie "Forks over Knives."
Relevance: After seeing her success, I decided to watch the movie and was struck by one of the researchers, Dr. Fuhrman. I read his book, Eat To Live, and decided that I too, would adapt an entirely plant based .
Confidence: I was so excited and well prepared after reading his book. I made grocery lists, cleaned out the pantry, looked up recipes, got a new digital scale and adpated my schedule to fit an additional work out day each week.
Satisfaction: Today, I am incredibly proud of myself. I have been following the plan for 2 weeks and have already lost a ton of weight. In addition to my original goal, I also have clearer, brighter skin, and have felt incredibly energized and confident that I am putting 100% healthy things into my body. I can see myself adopting this as a lifestyle. Is our course constructivist? The votes are in: all student's agree Dr. McGee is a Constructivist!
Our course follows the 5 Conditions For Learning very closely:
Complex, realistic and relevant environments that incorporate authentic activity (Mini-Assignments, Parts A,B,C)
Social negotiation (in class and in discussion)
Multiple perspectives & multiple modes of learning (text book, videos, different theories, etc.)
Ownership of learning (students need to constantly provide own examples, Part A)
Self-awareness in knowledge construction (hosting discussion, asking us to commit to a theory)
Some feedback ideas for P. McGee: Who is the most connected in class? It was hard for the class to choose one person because the online format doesn't really allow for getting to "see" or "know" each other. One classmate argued that Balckboard Learn may even be the "most connected"
How can we increase social/ cognitive presence? Most students said popular social media like Facebook and twitter might help. Also, posting a profile with personal information and photos could help crate a more intimate scenario. Lastly, adding video could provide a personal touch.
Who should regulate connection between students? Both the learner and the instructor have important roles. Instructor should provide options and opportunities but learners must take hold of this.
How could we make the class exclusively connectivist?
Adapted from Leon Johnson’s idea of our connectivist class:
Content Provided: Technologies such as Google Docs and Facebook should be the medium for content being provided (with visual aids such as power point somehow like we do in Wimba classroom to give some iconic learning representation, as well as reading material to get deeper into the subject).
Learner role:Active engagement in discussion. They should be listening to what others say, form their own opinions and argue/agree on what the group is saying. They should be attempting to express their feelings on a matter in their own words (they have to know the subject enough to back up their argument). I also think the learner has a responsibility to ask questions. Questions will spark more conversation in the group, and organizational learning will occur as others attempt to answer the questions. The collection of answers is tailored by everyone's input (again, actively engaging in discussion).
Instructor Role:Guide the class (choose readings, and make sure discussion stays on track), as well as provide corrections during group discussion. If a group's learning is tending in a bad direction, it's the instructor's responsibility to guide them in the right direction. Let them know what they're thinking of in the wrong way. Learning will occur on it's own, the instructor should make sure that it's the right learning. They are the “validator”.
Learning Assessment:Student should take the role of the teacher and facilitate discussion in the same way. You could take the connectivist-type approach to 'testing', or you can do a normal testing method. Connectivism seems to be a learning strategy, and it self assesses, self corrects. Learning occurs naturally in a Connectivist setting.