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Personality

Theories of personality development-psychodynamic, humanistic, trait.
by

Belinda Gladman-Nuske

on 26 October 2012

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Transcript of Personality

Personality Psychodynamic
Personality is a result of unconscious psychological conflicts and how effectively these are resolved in childhood. Humanistic Theories Trait Personality trait- personality characteristic that endures over time and across different situations. An individual's unique pattern of thoughts, feelings and behaviours that are relatively stable over time and across situations. Does not refer to character, temperament or mood. Superego domination results in a strict, moralistic, judgmental, unsociable personality with constant feelings of guilt Superego Freud believed:
Personality is fully formed by age 5 or 6
Personality expands over our lifetime through our experiences
Personality consists of three parts that are frequently in conflict – id, ego, superego
Personality is shaped by the way we resolve these conflicts Structure of personality Which aspect of personality is dominant? Id domination results in a self-centred demanding, sulky and childish personality Id domination Innate, biological needs that assist survival
Demanding, impulsive, illogical, irrational and selfish part of personality
Operates with pleasure principle demanding immediate satisfaction Id Organisation of the mind Ego domination results in a logical, practical personality lacking in spontaneity and playfulness Ego domination Balanced personality develops when no one aspect of personality is dominant Personality development Our conscience
Judges our thoughts, feelings and actions against values of the society
Pushes us towards perfection in whatever we do
Operates by moral principle providing us with a sense of right and wrong
Function: block urges of id and persuade the ego to be moralistic, not realistic Superego Id: “The TV program I want to watch is on – stop doing homework and watch it NOW!”. Ego: “I have to submit this homework task tomorrow, I’ll record the TV program and watch it once I have finished my homework”. Id/Ego conflict Develops during childhood
Realistic, logical, orderly part of personality
Operates with reality principle seeking to meet the needs of the id in an ‘acceptable’ way
Mediates between id and superego Ego the image of this iceberg, what I’m doing after this class, how hungry I feel, a pain in my arm
what I had for breakfast this morning, what I wore when I went out last Saturday night, the first words I spoke this morning, my favourite song

the death of a pet, being threatened by someone with a knife, being lost as a child, losing a close friend, being dumped by a girl/boyfriend Examples Unconscious Conscious Preconscious Most of it is hidden beneath the surface, and hidden from ourselves Basic idea: the mind is like an iceberg Freud’s theory of personality Id, Ego, Superego? Defense Mechanisms unconscious process by which the ego defends or protects itself against anxiety arising from unresolved internal conflicts repression reaction-formation regression projection rationalisation compensation sublimation intellectualisation fantasy displacement Ignoring emotions and feelings; talking about events in a cold, unemotional way Going back to a younger, more child-like way of behaving Shifting unwanted thoughts, feelings, personal shortcomings on to someone else Making up a socially acceptable explanation to justify unacceptable thoughts, feelings or behaviour Channeling unacceptable thoughts, impulses or wishes in a socially acceptable way Fulfilling unconscious wishes or desires by imagining them in activities Fulfilling unconscious wishes or impulses by imagining them in activities directing an emotion away form the object or person that caused it to a substitute object or person that is less threatening Refusing to believe whatever it is that would cause anxiety Thinking, feeling or behaving in a manner which is opposite to how you really think, feel or behave Attempting to cover up a real or imagined weakness by emphasising something in which you excel Preventing unacceptable thoughts or feelings from entering conscious awareness, therefore preventing anxiety fantasy Fulfilling unconscious wishes or desires by imagining them in activities Development of personality Jung's Psychodynamic theory of psychological types Four functions: Thinking, intuiting, feeling and sensing denial Refusing to believe whatever it is that would cause anxiety Freud’s psychodynamic
theory of personality Personality:
Results from how effectively we resolve unconscious psychological conflicts in childhood
Internal conflicts occur when instinctive urges clash with society’s rules for acceptable behaviour Psychodynamic approach to personality The instinctive urge to take whatever we want is not acceptable in our society resulting in an internal conflict.
Patience, for example comes from successfully controlling these instinctive urges. Psychodynamic approach to personality Freud believed:
Personality is fully formed by age 5 or 6
Personality expands over our lifetime through our experiences
Personality consists of three parts that are frequently in conflict – id, ego, superego
Personality is shaped by the way we resolve these conflicts Structure of personality Id Innate, biological needs that assist survival
Demanding, impulsive, illogical, irrational and selfish part of personality
Operates with pleasure principle demanding immediate satisfaction Develops during childhood
Realistic, logical, orderly part of personality
Operates with reality principle seeking to meet the needs of the id in an ‘acceptable’ way
Mediates between id and superego Ego Superego Our conscience
Judges our thoughts, feelings and actions against values of the society
Pushes us towards perfection in whatever we do
Operates by moral principle providing us with a sense of right and wrong
Function: block urges of id and persuade the ego to be moralistic, not realistic Id: “The TV program I want to watch is on – stop doing homework and watch it NOW!”. Id/Ego conflict Balanced personality develops when no one aspect of personality is dominant Personality development Id domination results in a self-centred demanding, sulky and childish personality Id domination Ego domination results in a logical, practical personality lacking in spontaneity and playfulness Ego domination Superego domination results in a strict, moralistic, judgmental, unsociable personality with constant feelings of guilt Superego Which aspect of personality is dominant? Id, Ego, Superego? Which aspect of personality is dominant? Id, Ego, Superego? Which aspect of personality is dominant? Id, Ego, Superego? Ego: “I have to submit this homework task tomorrow, I’ll record the TV program and watch it once I have finished my homework”. Organisation of the mind Trait theories focus on measuring, identifying and describing individual differences in personality in terms of traits. Allport's Theory of Traits
Cardinal trait-motivator and determinant of behaviour. Central-trait which is present in varying degrees in all people within a culture or society. Secondary trait- also present in varying degrees in all people. This is a superficial or peripheral trait and can be affected by situations. Cattell's 16 Personality Factor Model Surface trait-lies on the surface of personality and can be observed indirectly through the behaviour of a person. Source trait - underlying trait that can be observed through surface traits. Cattell developed a personality test to measure the 16 factor source traits or factors (16PF). Eysenck's PEN Model Costa and McCrae Five-Factor Model http://content.jacplus.com.au/secure/FileViewer?resourceId=99493&category=Interactivity Strengths and limitations Provide useful descriptions of personality and its structure Can lead to simplistic labelling Underestimate situational and soci0-cultural factors Strengths and limitations Many people agree that adult personality is influenced by childhood events, especially trauma. There is evidence supporting defence mechanisms Freud's theory lacks scientific evidence Most contemporary theorists do not believe that personality develops in age related stages. They also do not believe development stops at certain ages. -emphasise the uniqueness of each individual and the potential of human beings Carl Rogers -central to this theory is the self-concept of the individual Strengths and limitations focus on the positive dimensions of personailty and give a complete (if not always accurate) of how personality develops criticised for being vague and simplistic and unable to be scientifically tested unrealistic as does not recognise capacity for pessimism and evil
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