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Transcript of THF 47
Fundamentals of Coaching
Critique a Psychology paper
Specifically, the application of SDT to designing an autonomy - supportive motivational climate.
Australia's two mens relay teams for the 2004 Olympic Games.
Motivation produces outcomes (cognitive, behaviors and affect) and, therefore, understanding motivation is pivotal to initiating and maintaining others to act in various contexts, such as sport.
SDT is a major social cognitive theory of motivation and influences the following:
Continuum of motivation
Intrinsic -------------------- Amotivation (lack of interest)
Deci and Ryan, 1985
EM - Extrinsic Motivation
Non SDEM - ________
SDEM - _________
Coercive Coach asks his athletes to do Hill Sprints
How does that make your athletes feel?
Research on expert athletes has repeatedly shown that talent development is dependent upon quality Coaching (Bloom, 1985; Cote, Baker, and Abernethy, 2003)
The atmosphere that was created in the preparation of the two relay teams for Athens was consistent with SDT and the autonomy-supportive coaching behaviors proposed by Mageau and Vallerand (2003)
Coach or Athlete centered promotes opportunities for high quality sports performance???
MacNamara (2010) states psychological factors underpin an athletes potential and can transform them into a top - class performer.
Clifford J.Mallett, 2005
The Role of Psychological Characteristics
in Facilitating the Pathway to Elite Performance
Part 1: Identifying Mental Skills and Behaviors
A range of psychological factors effect performance.
Battle Mode 2vs2 - Can you list them... 2 mins, the pair with the most wins.
Of part one of this two-part investigation was to explore the attributes that facilitate the successful development of athletes from initial involvement to achieving and maintaining world-class status.
Seven elite athletes and a parent of each of these athletes were interviewed regarding their own (their son’s/ daughter’s) development in sport. Data were content
analyzed using a grounded theory approach.
Isn't "Sporting achievement multidimensional?"
What does this quote mean?
Is this contradicting the research in the study?
psychological factors were highlighted as the key determinants of those who emerged as talented and maintained excellence.
Accordingly, we suggest that talent identification and development programs should place greater emphasis on the advancement and application of psychological behaviors at an early stage to optimize both the development and performance of athletes.
Orlick and Partington (1998), for example,
identified psychological “success factors” (e.g., high level of commitment, long and short term goals, imagery, focus, pre- and in-competition plans) that distinguished
successful athletes from their less successful counterparts.
Gould and colleagues found that successful Olympic athletes were more committed and focused, and engaged in more extensive mental preparation than
less successful performers (Gould, Diffenbach, & Moffett, 2002).
Durand-Bush and Salmela’s work (2002) with
Olympic and World champions. They identified, among others, self-confidence and motivation as salient psychological characteristics of these elite athletes. In addition, these champions employed imagery and self-talk to both prepare for competition and to remain focused during high-level performances.
Factors Perceived to Underpin Initial Involvement in Sport
Factors Perceived to Underpin Progression in Sport
Psychological Characteristics as Determinants of
Influence of family members
This led to skill development
These findings support considerable evidence in the literature that families appear to play a crucial role in socializing individuals into sport (Baker & Horton, 2004).
Range of Sports and Skills
A consistent finding throughout the interviews was the extent to which psychological
attributes were highlighted as a, if not the, crucial factor underpinning successful
development (cf. Bompa, 1999).
What about physical attributes?
Awareness of what is required
Desire to prove ones self.
Coping with being chased - 'staying there'
Retain realistic expectations
Coming away from the comfort zone
Termed Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence (PCDEs), these are not just mental skills such as imagery or goal setting but also include the attitudes, emotions, and desires young athletes need to successfully realize their potential.
before the potentially substantial benefits of PCDE-based
TID processes may be realized, it is important to establish differences (if any) in
the set of behaviors required at different points during development and/or within
different performance domains. Checking for such time and environment-based
differences was the focus for the second part of this investigation (MacNamara et al.,
The Role of Psychological Characteristics in Facilitating the Pathway
to Elite Performance Part 2: Examining Environmental and Stage-Related Differences in Skills and Behaviors
MacNamara, Button and Collins
if individuals are to
fulfill their potential they must possess and systematically develop a specific set of
skills (termed Psychological Characteristics of Developing Excellence or PCDEs)
that allow them to interact effectively with the developmental opportunities they
However skills are not developed systematically?
Or are they? Discuss
24 elite participants from team sports, individual sports and music were sampled. - interviews
Results suggested that although PCDEs were important throughout development, the manner by which they were deployed depended on stage, domain, and the characteristics of the individual performer.
These findings support proposals to systematically incorporate PCDEs into TID practices because these may be the key feature in maintaining progress toward excellence.
Part 1 identifies the psychological charecteristics, while part 2 exams the range of psychological skills are critical to athlete development.
PCDE's - Psychological Characteristics of developing Excellence
TID - Talent Identification
The pathway to success -
Aspiring elites will encounter not only macro stages of development (cf. Côté, 1999) but also less predictable micro stages and transitions of development (e.g., injury, change of performance
The wave of development
Ollis, Macpherson, & Collins, 2006
Why is i called a wave of development?
Early success in track and field athletics (e.g., sprinting), for instance, may be achieved
with comparatively little effort (or even deliberate practice) if the athlete possesses natural ability, relatively greater physical maturity, and/or an appropriate physique
Simply, even though it is important to encourage young performers to engage in these ‘champion behaviors’ (Abbott et al., 2007), it is essential to consider how the context (e.g., performance domain) and characteristics (e.g., age, level of
cognitive maturity) of the individual impacts on the differential deployment of these psychological behaviors.
Can you find me an example
Refer to PDF
Results and Discussion
PCDEs That Facilitated the Successful Negotiation of the Pathway to Excellence
Even though progress was characterized by increases in deliberate practice, the participants clearly enjoyed the challenges of the developmental process. Although
deliberate practice has been traditionally conceptualized as an activity that is ‘not inherently enjoyable’ (Ericsson, 1996), the current findings resonate more with the findings of Starkes et al. (1996) and Helsen et al. (1998) who suggest that athletes are likely to describe highly effortful and relevant forms of practice as enjoyable.
Differential Deployment of PCDEs: Contextual Differences
A shift in responsibility was evident from ‘others’ (e.g., parents, teachers, coaches) promoting and reinforcing PCDEs in the early years, toward self initiated and autonomous behaviors in the later years when the performers were given more independence.
5 minutes - Can you find an example of the limitations for this study?
It has to be admitted that there are some limitations to the retrospective research
paradigm heretofore most evident within the TID literature (e.g., self-report bias,
truthfulness, reliability; Coolican, 2004).
Starkes, Helsen, and Jack (2001) have recommended that longitudinal and field based research should form the basis of future research in both talent development and expertise.