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The Treaty of Versailles
Transcript of The Treaty of Versailles
The Treaty of Versailles
David Lloyd-George: Great Britain
What did Britain Want?
Clemenceau: The Tiger
Germans thought the Treaty was a “diktat” : a dictated peace. They had not been invited to the peace conference at Versailles and when the Treaty was presented to them they were threatened with war if they did not sign it.
The Treaty was NOT based on Wilson’s Fourteen Points as the Germans had been promised it would.
Most Germans believed that the War Guilt Clause was unjustified. The French and British had done just as much to start the war
The loss of territory and population angered most Germans who believed that the losses were too severe.
Many Germans believed the German economy would be crippled by having to pay reparations.
The War Guilt Clause
"The Allied and Associated Governments affirm, and Germany accepts, the responsibility of Germany and her Allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied and Associate Governments and their nationals have been subjected as a consequence of a war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her Allies."
Territorial Losses and Sovereignty
Germany lost ALL of her overseas colonies
The Saar coalfields were given to France for fifteen years ($$)
Germany and Austria-Hungary were re-carved to include countries like Czech, Poland, Yugoslavia etc.
Germany agreed to pay for the damage caused by her armies during the war. The sum she had to pay was later fixed at £6,600 million
Germany's Military Clause
Woodrow Wilson - USA
What did America want?
The tool used to end WWI
A peace treaty
signed in June of 1919
November 11th 1918 (armistice signed) fighting stops
The Big Three
Woodrow Wilson wanted the treaty to be based on his
He believed Germany should be punished but not severely.
Wilson wanted to set up an international organization called The
League of Nations,
which would settle disputes.
In public Lloyd-George said he wanted to punish the Germans.
In private he realized that Britain needed Germany to recover because she was an important
He was also worried about the “disease from the east”, communism. A strong Germany would be a barrier against it.
- make sure Germany could not invade France.
- punish Germany
- Pay for the damages of war.
What did France want from the treaty?
The Terms of the Treaty
The German army was to be reduced to 100,000 men.
Germany was not allowed an air force
It was not allowed to have tanks.
The German navy was to have no submarines or large battle-ships
The area known as the Rhineland was to be de-militarised
The Allies were to occupy the west bank of the Rhine for fifteen years
GERMANY ACCEPTED RESPONSIBILITY FOR STARTING THE WAR
The Treaty of Versailles was signed on 28th June 1919. It officially ended the 1st World War. Many historians believe that it was a major cause of the 2nd World War.
Most Germans were horrified by the harshness of the Treaty. There was anger amongst all groups in Germany, no matter what their political beliefs. Some German newspapers called for revenge for the humiliation of Versailles.
However anger was also directed against the government in Germany. Already there was a myth growing in the country that the German army had been “stabbed in the back” by politicians…the so called “November Criminals”. Now these same politicians had signed the “Diktat”, the dictated peace. The new democracy in Germany was now closely linked with the humiliation of Versailles.
Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
32 nations attended the signing (about 75% of the world's population).
Negotiations were dominated by “The Big 3”.