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Copy of Applications of Nanotechnology in Steel
Transcript of Copy of Applications of Nanotechnology in Steel
Applications of Nanotechnology in Steel
Fatigue is a significant issue that can lead to the structural failure of steel subject to cyclic stress in a
steel framed structures such as bridges,towers, viaduct
Addition of copper nanoparticles reduces
the surface unevenness of steel which then limits the number of stress risers
Stress risers are responsible for initiating cracks from which fatigue failure results.
Temperature Limitation and Restriction
Infusion of steel with Nano scale copper particles could maintain structural integrity up to 1000 F
Above 750 F, steel starts to loose its structural integrity, and at 1000F, steel loses 50 % of its strength
New infused steel allows ultra high strength, corrosion resistance and have good surface finish.
Nanotechnology Engineered Materials
High strength steel cables
High Strength Joints
(Bolt and Weld)
Nanotechnology Steel Products
: while having the mechanical properties of conventional steel, has a modified Nano-structure that makes it corrosion resistant and it is an alternative to conventional stainless steel, but at a lower cost.
has both the desirable qualities of a high Young’s Modulus (measure of stiffness) and high strength and it is also resistant to corrosion due to the presence of very hard nanometer-sized particles in the steel
• Current research into refinement of cementite phase of steel to a Nano size has produced stronger cables
• A stronger cable material reduce the costs and period of construction, especially in bridges
• Sustainability is also enhanced by the use of higher cable strength as this leads to a more efficient use of material
• The capacity of high strength bolts is realized generally through quenching and tempering
• Vanadium and molybdenum nanoparticles
delays the problems associated with high
strength bolts and also improving the steel’s micro- structure
• The addition of nanoparticles of magnesium and calcium makes the HAZ(Heat Affected Zone) grains finer in plate steel and this leads
to an increase in weld toughness.
Tensile strength of bolt product= 1848MPa
Compare to conventional bolts strength= 420 to 1034MPa
1) Fe2O3 SEM image of nanostructures
2) TEM image of nanowire(1a)
3) TEM Image of nanobelt (1b)
• Nanotechnology is the use of very small pieces of material by themselves or their manipulation to create new large scale
• At the Nano-scale material properties are altered from that of larger scales.
• The Nano-scale is the size range from approximately 1nm to 100nm. Nanometer is a billionth of a meter
• Nanotechnology allows us to develop materials with improved or totally new properties.
What Is Nanotechnology?
Nano Technology Introduction and Background
It is defined as a particle with
at least one dimension less than
200nm. Nano-particles made of
It is produced by adding Nanoparticle to bulk material in order to improve its bulk properties.
Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)
Titanium Dioxide (TiO2)
Applications of Nanotechnology in Glass
Research is being carried out to improve and extend the uses of glass as a construction material. So far there are two majors areas for glass in this area
these act on the surface of the glass.
this changes how the glass works from the inside.
By coating the glass in materials like Titanium Dioxide, the glass is able to clean itself and keep itself sterile.
Self cleaning glass is a very practical tool in places like hospitals and labs where a sterile environment is a must.
Hydrophobic is another sub-category of
nanotechnology in glass surfaces.
With a nano-coating of a hydrophobic substance, glass can be made to completely repel water.
This would be useful in areas with lots of rain that may erode the glass windows.
One of the last important subcategories are scratch-resistant sprays that can be used on glass.
Using such sprays can improve the lifetime of glass indefinitely against small abrasions.
The biggest and most important change in glass compound in the field is heat resistant glass.
By sandwiching a layer of Silica nanoparticles in between glass, the heat resistance goes up dramatically without changing any other properties of glass.
Heat resistant glass would improve the maintenance cost of building dramatically
because they would let in only 70% of the energy coming from the sun.
This would lower the costs of air conditioning a building has to do in the Summer months.
Heat Resistant Glass
Combining glass with Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) the glass would become conductive.
This would allow glass to be used as wires throughout the house.
Or it can also allow the glass to become surface screens like computer monitors.
In the experiment, we observed how liquid crystal diodes (LCDs) react in high temperatures.
To test this, we kept a LCD screen in water as we slowly heated the water and observed the results.
This is how we set up our experiment:
The result was that around 70°C, the LCD screen turned black.
It went from the left side to the right without a polarized filter.
The function of LCDs is possible only due to their unique helix build that changes when current is passed through them.
However, this build breaks down under high heat making the LCD unusable at high temperatures.
The result is light that travels between two polarized filter that are 90° to each other, cancelling out all light.
They are the form of carbon that was
first discovered in 1952 in Russia and
then re-discovered in the 1990’s in
They are cylindrical in shape with
Types of Nano-tubes:-
Single-walled carbon Nano-tubes
Multi-walled carbon Nano-tubes
-Stands for Micro Electro Mechanical Systems
-Refers to the technology of small devices
-Is made of compenents on a 1 to 100 micrometer scale
-Generally ranges from micrometers to a millimeter
-Made using technique of microfabrication
MEMS and LCDS
-Has a central unit that processes data
-Has micro actuators which are the most notable parts. Micro actuators convert energy into a different form of energy.
-Micro sensors convert a mechanical signal into an electrical one
Parts of MEMS
Texas instruments' digital micromirror device - this is used in portable projectors, rear-projection television.
Examples of MEMS
-Stands for Liquid Crystal Display
-Type of display (flat panel, electronic or video) that uses light modulating properties of liquid crystals
-Can display arbitrary images or fixed images
-These images can be displayed or hidden
-Made of two pieces of polarized glass
How it works
As the population increases there is a greater demand for constuction. Concrete is an ideal medium for constructing. It is made from abundant sources. This sources are cement, water and sand.
Concrete and Cement
-To create less waste
-Reduce enviromental impact
-Reduce carbon impact
-Crete new cements and concrete
-Increase life span
-Double concrete's strength
Goals of Nanotechnology in Concrete
Nanotechnology in Concrete
-Nanoparticles control air in mixture during mixing of cement materials. This is used to reduce air bubbles in cement.
-During this process lighter particles rise while heavier ones sink. This is called segregation.
-These nano particles modify the mixture
Nanotechnology in Concrete continued
-Nanoindentation is used to obtain local mechanical properties of materials
-Nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes used to reinforce concrete
Aplication of Nanotechnology in Concrete and Cement
Titanium dioxide is a widely used white pigment.
It can also oxidize oxygen or organic materials, therefore, it is
added to paints, cements, windows, tiles etc.
As TiO2 is exposed to UV light, it becomes increasingly hydrophilic (attractive to water), thus it can be used for antifogging coatings or self cleaning windows.
Nanotechnology in Civil Engineering
Nanoscale titanium dioxide
This produces oxygen radicals that break down and decompose organic material.
Creates “self cleaning” building materials and to break down air pollutants.
When worked into cement or applied in a layer on concrete, the photocatalytic activity of nano-TiO2 helps decompose dirt composed of organic matter, which is then washed off when it rains.
Externally, the buildings maintain their original appearance for a longer period.
Concrete products such as roof and paving stones with photocatalytic TiO2 improve air quality by converting nitrogen oxides from the surrounding air into nitrate14
An example is the “Jubilee Church” in Rome,
which was constructed in 2003 and whose white concrete shows no signs of soiling even years later.
Anti-graffiti or anti-fingerprint coatings
Dirt- and water-repellent, with “self-cleaning” coatings. Can be applied in:
Facade paints,window panes,roof tiles
Surface protection for construction materials against: water penetration,
mosses,algae or mold
lightweight material that can for example be produced from silica.
The gel is dried in a special process, yielding a type of solid foam that consists of more than 95% air.
First produced back in the 1930s
Aerogel holds among others as the “best insulator” and “lightest solid
The pores of this material measure only a few nanometers
The thermal conductivity of a material with pores on the nano-scale is minimal because only a few gas molecules have space in the pores, thus reducing the heat transfer from one gas particle to another.
Combining Aerogel and stone wool yields so-called Aerowolle®
Which is incorporated into thin plasterboard for interior insulation.
Aerogel can also be filled in between two window glass panes.
Glazing successfully blocks infrared radiation as well as noise.
Latent heat storage (“Phase Change Materials”, PCM) – Temperature regulation
In summer, very high temperatures in buildings
This can be countered with plastering, bricks, concrete or clay panels with
incorporated PCM that are produced based on paraffin waxes.
In this approach, paraffin spherules with diameters in the micro- or nanometer scale are enclosed in a stable coating of plastic or acrylic glass.
When the wax melts at higher temperatures, it extracts heat energy from the surroundings though the phase shift from solid to liquid.
When the temperature drops again, for example at night, the wax becomes solid again and releases this heat energy.
Construction materials with PCM are suitable for temperature regulation in interiors
Can even entirely replace the need for air conditioning.
Special fire-resistant glass consists of two glass panes with an only 3-mm-thin filling of nanoscale SiO2
Which foams in the event of a fire
Such panes can withstand a continuous fire of more than 1000 °C for up to 120 minutes
It is very light and thin
The coating itself is hardly visible
Using nano-SiO2, lightweight sandwich panels of straw and hemp, such as those used in trade fair construction, can be coated and made fire resistant.
Despite the glass-like coating, the panels are diffusible and, at the end of their useful life, can be normally shredded and disposed of.
Nano-structured silicate particles (so-called “nano-clay”) can be incorporated in plastics to optimize their flame-retardant properties and their heat resistance.
Such nanocomposite materials are for example applied in producing cable insulation or covers (e.g. fuse boxes, sockets) in interior finishings.
Aplication of Nanocating in Construction
Nanotechnology can be used in construction. It can be applied to concrete, steel, insulation and glass to improve its functionality and it’s durability. There are four sections that nanotechnology are improving in and that’s
(1) cement-bound construction materials,
(2) noise reduction and thermal insulation or temperature regulation
(3) surface coatings to improve the functionality of various materials
(4) Fire Protection
What are the side effects when using nanotechnology?
How is nanotechnology in construction sustainable?
How can nanotechnology promise to build products with both extreme precision in structure, and environmental cleanliness in the production process?
Are there any safety or environmental issues with the nanotechnologies in use today?
Scanning Electron Microscope