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Contraceptives

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Angela Ebinger

on 18 November 2013

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Transcript of Contraceptives

Contraceptives
(IUD)
An IUD is a small, T-shaped plastic device that is used for contraception. IUD's typically come in two forms: copper coated or hormone secreting. A doctor will insert the device into the uterus and remove it when desired. The device has an attached string that hangs outside of the cervix for easy removal and placement checking.
Natural Family planning (NFP) is based on close observation of a woman's naturally occuring signs and symptoms of a woman's menstrual cycle. It includes three methods. All three methods used together is known as the symptothermal method
http://www.usccb.org/
Natural Family Planning
Basal Body Temperature Method
-Women have a "basal" body temperature at rest. During ovulation this temperature rises slightly. Temperature is easily measured using a Basal Body thermometer.
-It is found to be most effective if one keeps track of when their temp rises.
-One is usually most fertile two to three days before their temp rises
http://americanpregnancy.org/
Calendar Method
This method requires a women to watch and chart when she menstruates during the month. Typically, on average women tend to menstruate on a 28 to 32 day cycle. This method helps the woman to get familiar with her cycle. She can count the first day of her period and count how many days she menstruates. After keeping track for several months, a woman can chose her longest cycle and subtract 11 from the total number of days and then count that number of days from your current cycle. That day you mark with an X and this is your last fertile day.
http://www.plannedparenthood.org/
Cervical Mucus Method
With this method, a women watches for changes occuring with her cervical mucus. This could include color or thickness. This mucus is called Spinnbarkeit, which is German for stretchable. As ovulation begins, estrogen levels rise. This changes the quantity and consistency of one's cervical mucus.The thicker and more milky it is, the more fertile a woman is.When a woman does not experience cervical mucus, those days are considered "safe" days, which means it is highly unlikely that one could conceive.
http://www.plannedparenthood.org/
2 Types of IUDs

Hormonal IUD
s release a form of progestin hormone called levonorgestrel. To prevent fertilization, the IUD damages and kills the sperm while making a mucous layer on the cervix that is thick and sticky. A thick cervical mucous prevents sperm from entering the uterus. In addition, IUDs prevent the lining of the endometrium from growing thicker. Due to the hormonal changes with this IUD, many users reported both reduced menstrual bleeding and cramping. The hormonal IUD is effective for at least 5 years.

"Copper IUD
. The most commonly used IUD is the copper IUD. Copper wire is wound around the stem of the T-shaped IUD. Copper is toxic to sperm. It makes the uterus and fallopian tubes produce fluid that kills sperm. This fluid contains white blood cells, copper ions, enzymes, and prostaglandins. The copper IUD can stay in place for at least 10 years and is a highly effective form of contraception."
Birth control health center. (n.d.). Retrieved from (http://www.webmd.com/sex/birth-control/intrauterine-device-iud-for-birth-control)
Advantages
“Advantages of IUDs :
* cost-effectiveness over time
* easy to use
* lower risk of ectopic pregnancy,
* no interruption of foreplay or intercourse.
Hormonal IUD advantages:
* Reduces heavy menstrual bleeding by an average of 90% after the first few months of use and in some cases it may stop the period altogether after prolonged use.
* May prevent endometrial hyperplasia or endometrial cancer.
*May effectively relieve endometriosis and is less likely to cause side effects than high-dose progestin.
*Reduces the risk of ectopic pregnancy.
*Does not cause weight gain.”
Copper IUD advantages:
*Does not disturb the body’s natural hormone balance
*10 years of use
Birth control health center. (n.d.). Retrieved from (http://www.webmd.com/sex/birth-control/intrauterine-device-iud-for-birth-control)
Effectiveness:
The effectiveness of Natural Family Planning is entirely up to you! Consistency and diligence in charting and being aware of your body can lead to being nearly 90% effective.Twenty-four out of every 100 couples who use fertility awareness-based methods each year will have a pregnancy if they don't always use the method correctly or consistently.When using it more consistently, the odds of becoming pregnant lessen quite dramatically.
http://www.plannedparenthood.org/
After insertion
"It is common for women to feel some cramping when the IUD is inserted. Many women only feel mild discomfort others can feel more than moderate discomfort but it varies person to person. The cramps can go away after some rest, or if you take some pain medication. Some health care providers suggest that women take pain medication before the IUD is inserted to lessen the cramps. Some health care providers inject a local anesthetic around the cervix to reduce discomfort.
When the IUD is inserted, some women may feel dizzy. Rarely, a woman might faint. It is wise to ask someone to come with you when you get the IUD inserted so you don’t have to drive or go home alone. You should plan to rest at home until any discomfort goes away.
When the IUD is in place, a string will hang down into the vagina. It will be about one to two inches long. About a month later you will have a follow up to make sure the placement was successful."
What happens when you have an iud inserted. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-topics/birth-control/iud-insertion-19268.htm
Emergency Contraception
Emergency contraception is used after one has already had sexual intercourse, during the course of which the original birth control method failed, one was not used, or if the sexual activity took place without consent. Emergency contraception pills are often times called the morning after pill, the day after pill, or morning after contraception.
How to use emergency contraception
Emergency contraceptive pills are available in one or two pill doses. In both cases the emergency pill should be taken immediately after intercourse for most effective results, but can still be taken up to five days after the intercourse took place. In the case of the two-pill emergency contraceptive the second pill should be taken twelve hours after the first or they can be taken at the same time.
Effectiveness
Levonogestrel pills (Plan B One-Step and Next choice One Dose) are cited to be 89% effective if taken within 72 hours of intercourse and decrease in effectiveness following that 72-hour period.
Side Effects
No serious complications from emergency contraception have ever been reported. Side effects are generally mild and can include nausea, vomiting, abnormal period, dizziness, breast tenderness, and headache.
Misconceptions
Emergency contraception is not an abortion pill. Emergency contraception pills work the same way that ordinary birth control pills do, by preventing ovulation.
Alternatives
Paraguard IUD insertion up to five days after intercourse is another method of emergency contraception.
Certain types of birth control pills can also be used as emergency contraception if taken in the correct dosage.
IUD insertion
"To get an IUD, you need to visit a health care provider. They will ask you some important questions about how you live your life. It is also important to be open and honest because the IUD might not be right for everyone. If an IUD seems to be a good choice for you, your health care provider will check your vagina and internal organs. You may be tested for sexually transmitted infections or for other infections to make sure it’s safe for you to get an IUD. If you have any kind of pelvic infection, you may need treatment before getting an IUD.
An IUD can be inserted at any time of the month. But it is usually more comfortable if you have it inserted in the middle of your menstrual cycle. That is when the cervix is the most open."


http://www.plannedparenthood.org/health-topics/birth-control/iud-insertion-19268.htm
Sterilization
Permanent Contraceptive - Usually Irreversible
Female Forms
Tubal Sterilization
Closure or blockage of both Fallopian tubes
Blocking tubes can be done with cauterization, closing the tubes by pinching them, ligation, or placing inserts, such as Essure, into the Fallopian tubes to block sperm.
Tubal Ligation is the procedure of tying or closing the Fallopian Tubes.
Essure is a small device that looks like a spring that is inserted into the Fallopian tubes. The body then creates scar tissue around the device this block the sperm from making contact with the ovum.
Essure Video
Cost of Natural Family Planning:
A huge benefit of Natural Family Planning is that it is nearly FREE. If you are measuring your basal body temperature, a thermometer may cost you $10.00 to $15.00. Otherwise costs are not a factor!
Are there cons to Natural Family Planning?
Yes, there are a few... The Natural Family Planning method may be difficult for women that have irregular menstrual cycles. This menthod also does not prevent nor does it protect against sexually transmitted infections or diseases.
What are the pros to Natural Family Planning?
The Natural Family Planning method is inexpensive, effective, and side-effect-free! There are no devices or drugs used or implanted, and is an alternative to those against mainstream birth control options.
Tubal Ligation Video
Male Forms
Vasectomy is the blockage of sperm from the vas deferens. All normal functions of the male erection and ejaculation remain the same, except the the ejaculate doesn't contain sperm. While the male still produces sperm, they are reabsorbed into the body.
Vasectomy Video
Effectiveness

Both male and female sterilization are nearly 100% effective, but both Essure and vasectomy require post-procedure evaluation to confirm that they worked.
Advantages
Extremely effective
Quick recovery
Little chance of complications
Does not change hormones
It lasts for life
Disadvantages
Irreversible (sometimes reversible in males)
Costly $$
Medical Procedure
Reversals requires complicated surgery
Risks
One possible risk is that the tubes may reconnect by themselves — but this is rare. When women get pregnant after being sterilized, about 1 out of 3 has a pregnancy that develops in a fallopian tube. This is called ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is serious and may be life threatening.
The reversals of sterilization requires complicated surgery, and there is always a possibility of live changes happening such as divorce, remarriage, and the death of children.
How safe is sterilization?
How will it impact you life
Risks with Essure


A second procedure may be needed.
The inserts may move out of place.
The tubes may not be completely blocked after three months.
The uterus may be injured during the insertion.
The inserts may be damaged during other medical procedures.
Risks
“Risks of using an intrauterine device (IUD) include:
*Menstrual problems. The copper IUD may increase menstrual bleeding or cramps. Women may also experience spotting between periods.
*Perforation. In 1 out of 1,000 women, the IUD will get stuck in or puncture (perforate) the uterus. Although perforation is rare, it almost always occurs during insertion. The IUD should be removed if the uterus has been perforated.
*Expulsion. About 2 to 10 out of 100 IUDs are pushed out (expelled) from the uterus into the vagina during the first year. This usually happens in the first few months of use. Expulsion is more likely when the IUD is inserted right after childbirth or in a woman who has not carried a pregnancy. When an IUD has been expelled, you are no longer protected against pregnancy.”
Birth control health center. (n.d.). Retrieved from (http://www.webmd.com/sex/birth-control/intrauterine-device-iud-for-birth-control)
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